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Tuesday, June 18, 2013

Hong Kong Screening: The Other : Hong Kong Experimental Shorts (別樣:香港實驗短片)


Written by curator:Phoebe Man 策展人•文晶瑩

‘The Other’ implies not the same and the German philosopher Hegel said it also constituted the thought of self-consciousness: a person is aware of the difference of self and the other. “The other” can describe the idea of the artists and the idea of the program. Hong Kong Screening consists of two parts: the young artists’ works and the women artists’ works.


Experimental films and videos as well as new media art are mostly technologically based. Advanced technology is traditionally regarded as a guy thing. In fact, there are many women artists actively involved in experimental films and video production in Hong Kong. The ratio between women and men that involved in experimental film and video (around 5:5) is greater than that of those who are in traditional art media (around 3:7). Explanations could be many. One of them is that more women have received higher education nowadays and it is a long time phenomenon that female students have outnumbered males to receive university art education. Men tend to choose career based subjects which can promise higher future income. On the other hand, new media art world is more liberal and ready to accommodate new things and ideas. Women artists have equal opportunity of exposure. The different makes“the others”.

The program has selected works from four female artists, and to show their alternative views.

Ellen Pau is a nurse, an artist and the art director of Videotage. She has been making videos for more than 20 years and she has also devoted herself to nurture the young artists. Her videos are diverse, ranging from gender issue to everyday politics and urbanization. She has been doing a lot of experiments on visual language. She will continue her experiment, collect everyday images of Hong Kong and rebuilt the concept of “Hong Kong” through her video “Fanfare for the Common Man ”.

Linda Lai is an Associate Professor and also the founder of the new media art group: ‘The Writing Machine Collective’ (2004- ). Her works have shown a strong concern for language and narrativity, grounded in a feminist sensibility that integrates critical theory, film theories and visual ethnography. Her work, “VOICES SEEN, IMAGES HEARD” has shown a searching process, aimed to redefine the city “Hong Kong” which is a term having too many clichés. She abandoned those discourses that people already have and went back to the basic, collecting daily fragments and facts to induce new concepts of Hong Kong. The approach is humane and inspiring.

Traveling around several cities, Rita Hui ’s “IdoLetHerMyHeadHave” has focused on the issue of narrative: how to tell a story. Every story film director concerns this question and Rita has adapted a reflective approach. Instead of hiding behind the video, the creator exposed herself and played with the protagonists of the story. When the audience is expecting a story to tell, the creator expressed her lost and frustration. The video is full of surprise. The visual language is strong and diverse.

Phoebe Man is a sculptor and media artist. She used sculptural method to make video. Dealing with the issue of sexual assault, through releasing memories and imaginations, making destruction and construction, her work “Rewrite the History” tried to confront the misconceptions of the society and to attain self empowerment.

This is not a complete list of experimental works done by Hong Kong women artists. Due to limited screening time, some significant artists who produced long pieces and documentaries cannot be included in this screening. Nevertheless, I think future exchange in the coming years could continue to provide platforms for artists of different talents to expose.

To sustain the open spirit of new media art, this video program will also show works of young artists: 3 animations and 3 videos. All selected artists are just graduated. Although they are young, their works have demonstrated experimental spirit and strong characters. Issue of identities, researches of space and the cities are their concerns. They are sensitive about things surrounding them. Filling with imagination and uncertainty, searching by trial and error, and their works have never lacked of charisma.
“Sentimental Journey – My 22nd year project” by Tsang Wing Man, was about lost and frustration. The focus was about her identity searching. She felt lost when it came to her family, her love and her future. The story is ordinary, unique and delicate and it has reflected the ambiguous feelings of the young generation of Hong Kong.

Kenji Wong’s video “Table Distance” is a one-shot video experimentation of tableau vivant in public space. The form of the video tried to break the boundaries between the stage, the audience, and the video space. In his work, it also showed a group of alienated people in the city, being together in the same space, being so close to each other but everyone is so self-absorbed in his or her own world.

Ho Ka Ho’s animation “Puff the Magic Dragon” is also a story of self-absorption. He magnified one’s own world by mixing the reality and the imaginary space and through the imaginary world, to reflect the truth of the real world and the truth of self.

Works of Mak Ming Kit, Jose Lai and Howard Cheng are about the living space of Hong Kong. Rapid redevelopment, crowded high rise building, ever changing space, standardized and inhuman design have brought profound psychological effects on Hong Kong people. Reconstructing the Hong Kong living space through their works, they have illustrated their feelings toward the social issue subtly. Their works also show their sensitive observation of Hong Kong’s unique architectural space. Jose’s animation “Hope of home” showed the fear of ever changing environment. Mak Ming Kit’s animation “City Monster” depicted the horror of big property developers and Hong Kong Government tearing the city apart. Howard’s video “The Doors” composed the orchestral sound of the opening and closing of the gates of public housing. Since Hong Kong’s public housing units are so closed and packed together, that made the present of this “orchestra” possible.

These artists’ works are “the others” and non-mainstream. The experimental nature of their works has developed distinctive characteristics. They are able to transform personal experience to metaphysical concepts, as a form of discussion but not fitting in any kind of grand narratives of ideology. Instead of illustrating theories, they are more willing to show the audience the richness of daily lives. Different points of view are always employed to see the roles of human beings, cities and usage of technology. Using delicate technique, extraordinary imagination and filled with unique characters, the works are intriguing. And it is the combination of these elements that formed the fascinating side of their works.

「別樣」有「不同」 的意思,德國哲學家黑格爾說它是一種自覺意識:一個人意識到自己與他者之間的不同。「別樣」的概念,涵納了這次香港實驗短片節目的主題,以及所邀請的藝術家,其中包括了節目的兩部分:香港年輕一輩的藝術家和女性藝術家。

實驗電影、錄像或新媒體藝術作品,大都與新科技有關。一般人會認為先進的科技都屬於男性範疇,但其實香港過往和現在都有許多女性藝術家創作實驗電影及錄像。在實驗媒介的創作者中,女性與男性的比例約為5:5;傳統藝術的創作者比例則約為3:7。這個現象可以有許多解釋,其中一項,是由於近年愈來愈多女性接受高等教育,藝術學校裡面女性學生尤其比男性多,因為男性較傾向於選擇被認為能賺錢養家的學系。另一個原因,是新媒體藝術圈較開放,容易接納新想法和新思想,讓女性創作者也可以有同等的曝光機會。那不同的現象,是一種「別樣」。

從這次選出的四位女性藝術創作者的作品中,我們即可窺見一些不一樣的視野。

鮑藹倫是一位護士、藝術創作者和錄影太奇的藝術總監,已經創作錄像二十幾年了,同時熱心於栽培年輕藝術家。她的作品相當多元化,從性別議題到政治、都市化問題也有涉足,也嘗試實驗影像的視覺語言。 在今次新作<阿運會 >裡,她收集許多香港的日常景像,試圖透過重塑這些景像再定義 “香港”。

黎肖嫻是一位副教授,也是“文字機器創作集” 團體的創立人。從她的作品裡,可見她對語言及文字敘述的關注。她以女性主義意識為基礎,再結合批判理論、電影理論以及視覺民俗誌學創作。她的作品 < 看得見的聲音,聽得見的形象>,是一段重新探索“香港”的過程,一層層地剝去種種附加在這城市上的陳腔濫調,將日常中的細節再度抽絲剝繭,希望能尋回屬於“香港” 最初最新的定義,這個做法相當富人味且發人深省。

到過許多城市旅行之後,許雅舒的作品<我遊>集中於探索 “如何說故事?”這一命題上。每位劇情片的導演相信也曾思索過此問題,而許雅舒則用了一個後設的方法。她不再只是個躲在鏡頭後面的創作者,偶爾這位作者也會出現在鏡頭之前與故事中主角互動。當觀眾期待故事如何發展,她卻用篇幅去談創作故事的迷失與憂慮。這部影片處處充滿了驚喜,視覺語言極為豐富且變化多端。

文晶瑩喜歡做雕塑,也是媒體藝術工作者,她用雕塑的思維去創造她的影像世界。在<重寫歷史>的作品中,透過釋放記憶和想像,她的作品試圖對抗性侵犯的迷思,鼓勵自我完全。

由於放映時間的限制,此次還尚未能將香港女性導演的作品做一次完整的呈現,還有一些時間較長的精彩作品,以及一些紀錄片,也只好成了這次展出的遺珠之憾。我也要強調,香港其實也有不少優秀的男性藝術家作品,也只好有另一個專題時才介紹。另外,為了保持新媒體藝術的開放傳統,這次專題也特別加插介紹一些年青藝術家的短片: 三件動畫作品,以及三件錄像作品。這些藝術家剛從學校畢業,相當年輕且帶著獨特的自我個性和充滿實驗精神。她/他們關心自我認同的問題,亦喜歡探索生活空間和城市。他們對於週遭的環境相當敏感且富有想像力,有時會帶著不安的感覺,在探索過程中跌跌撞撞,他們的作品都不失魅力。

< 實現?...現實 >是一部關於失落和挫折的作品,是曾詠汶自我剖析找尋認同感的旅程。家人、所愛和自己的將來總帶給她落失的感覺,她的作品平常、獨特又帶點細膩。從她的故事之中,反映出新世代矛盾又曖昧難明的情感。

王偉健的作品 <餐桌距離>,是一件在公共空間裡一鏡到底的實驗錄像作品,試圖打破戲劇、觀眾、和鏡頭之間的界限,也同時呈現出城市裡人際關係疏離的景况,人與人一起,卻又只封閉在自我的世界。

何家豪的動畫作品< 胡同鏡子 >亦是一個自我沉溺的故事。他將現實和虛幻交織成的世界放大,透過想像世界反映出真實的世界和自我。

麥銘杰、黎曉楓、鄭智禮的作品,都關注香港的生活空間。香港急劇的建築重建、密集的高樓、不斷變遷的景觀、非人性化的空間設計,著實帶給港人不少心理上的影响。 三位創作者通過影象重塑香港的生活空間,含蓄地表達出他們對社會問題的感覺。 黎曉楓的作品<夢想•家>,恐懼環境不斷變遷。麥銘杰的<城市怪物>描繪地產商、政府如何將城市撕裂。鄭智禮所作的<門>,把廉租屋的門和閘的開合組成一首交響曲,不是香港戶貼戶般擠迫的居住環境,這首交響曲便奏不成!

這些藝術家的作品帶著獨特個人性格,顯現出一種在主流電影之外的“別樣 ”。他們將個人私密的經驗轉化成抽象的語彙,卻又不落入傳統敘事的窠臼之中。將日常生活中層層豐富的經驗世界打開,而不再只是喃喃說著道理,以多重的視角去看城市中的人、景色、科技化的種種。他們細緻的手法還有卓越的想像力, 使得這些作品相當精彩可期。


Artist Statement胡同鏡子

Puff the Magic Dragon

何家豪 Ho Ka Ho

中國香港 China Hong Kong|2009|DVD|Color|Sound|4min 37sec



日復日地以什麼來尋求混亂的思緒

在空虛混沌中盲目地胡亂游走

浮遊於真實與虛假中

發現自己一直尋找的

就是身邊的一隻昆蟲

就是房間中的另一個自己

Day by day using something to seek for disorderly thinking

Blindly wandering around the emptiness

Roaming between the reality and the delusion

Discovering that what myself is finding

Is an insect beside me

Which is another self in the room?

何家豪 Ho Ka Ho

畢業於香港城市大學創意媒體學系,主要從事動畫創作,同時跟不同機構合作及參與不同類型媒體的製作,如拍攝及後期特技合成及互動裝置製作等等。

Ho Ka Ho, graduated from the School of Creative Media, City University of Hong Kong. He mainly engaged in animation production. Beside, Ho Ka Ho also co-operate with different organizations and participate in various types of media production, such as video shooting, post-production special effect, and interactive installation production, etc.


城市怪物

City Monster

麥銘杰 Mak Ming Kit

中國香港 China Hong Kong|2010|DVD|Color|Sound|4min 4sec

動畫的內容來自觀察香港的建築物及天空啟發,透過合成照片及影片製成動畫去呈現故事內容。近年來,香港愈來愈多摩天大廈落成,當我們抬頭向上看, 我們看到的不再是天空,而是近乎覆蓋整個天空的建築物。它們正把漸漸侵佔我們的天空,在建築物的背後,到底是誰在操控它們呢? 那就是城市怪物。

An animation inspired by the observation of the buildings and sky in Hong Kong. The artist used animating photos and videos to present the whole story. In recent years, more and more sky buildings were built in Hong Kong. When we look up, what we can see is not the sky, but the buildings. Buildings invade our sky gradually. And behind the buildings, who manipulate them? That's the City Monster.

麥銘杰 Mak Ming Kit

畢業於香港城市大學創意媒體學院,主修批判性跨媒體實驗室。對於動畫、動態圖像、視覺效果及互動媒體有興趣,喜歡從城市及社會問題上取材。最近的作品<<城市怪物>>與及 <<無限空間?>>都是跟城市規劃和香港示範單位問題有關。

Mak graduated from School of Creative Media in City University of Hong Kong, majoring in Critical Intermedia Laboratory. His areas of interest include animation, motion graphics, visual effect and interactive media. He loves to search for ideas from the city and social issue to make his artwork. His recent works “City Monster” and “Infinite space?” also related to the urban planning and the issue of show flats.

夢想•家

Hope of Home

黎曉楓 Jose Lai

中國香港 China Hong Kong|2007|HD|Color|Sound|5min 16sec

一直也想做一齣關於夢與記憶的動畫。小時候,我經常搬家,我便忽發其想如果「家」本身是有自身思想及情緒那便很有趣,這動畫也因此而生講述一個「家」與小男生的故事。

I want to create a work about dream and memory. In the past, I always moved from one home to another. So, what if the “home” itself has emotion. This animation is about the spirit of a “home” and a boy.

黎曉楓 Jose Lai

畢業於香港城市大學創意媒體學院,曾經在動畫公司和設計公司分別待過一年時間,目前為自由創作者。

After graduated from School of Creative Media in City University of Hong Kong, I worked in an animation and design film for a year separately. In 2009, I quit the design job and work as a freelancer. I try to create artwork while doing freelance. However, I always do not have enough free time to work for my own artwork.



The Doors

鄭智禮 Howard Cheng

中國香港 China Hong Kong|2007|DVD|Color|Sound|5min 59sec

以閉路電視的形式,拍攝香港的代表性建築物─公屋。

在隱蔽的角度下偷窺南山老街坊的生活面貌,回顧舊式香港的公屋生活,從而追溯香港公屋居民最真實的一面。配合大門開關的節奏,為短片強烈地帶出時間及空間的官能,並刺激觀感。
“Doors” opens with an unchanging cross-section of a public housing estate building, the kind in which the doors to each unit all open in the same direction onto a large outdoor hall that also serves as a public balcony. The frame is fully occupied by seven floors, leaving a total of 42 doors (and apartment facades with a set number of windows) visible. At the outset, the scene is largely silent, with a lone figure washing a window. Slowly, other figures enter from the left or right sides, opening doors and entering apartments. All the while, the sounds of jangling keys, sliding Bostwick gates, and slamming doors are exaggerated with foley effects. Strangely, several figures enter from one side and exit directly from the other edge of the frame, not returning home at all. Beginning at this point, the viewer recognizes that this is a carefully choreographed and edited scene: doors start to open and reopen in rapid succession for sonic effect, occasionally opening in different directions and with different clicking sounds. As multiple doors begin to open and close in unison and in striking visual patterns, the audio balance drifts between left and right. The orchestra of doors then begins to vary in speed, adding in additional rhythmic elements. Then the light changes, and some figures walk across in slow motion; voices emerge, and more figures walk the screen in fast forward. The video ends with nightfall, as apartment lights also join the fray. Chilai Howard Cheng has digitally reconstructed an accidentally utopian view of communal life, a vision in which creative force triumphs over crowded living conditions. (Text by Robin Peckham.)

鄭智禮 Howard Cheng

愛探究不平凡的事,探索不同影片製作。

作品多以個人理念滲入社會存在問題。

Chilai Howard is a Hong Kong mixed media art worker who loves to explore speculative affair and experience different artist productions. He focuses on moving images and mixed media installation. His previous works mostly related to society issue presented in personal believe and values. His works were screened in various festival and exhibitions, such as the Hong Kong International Film Festival, Loop Art Video Festival, Subvirsion. Kunst. Festival. Off., Move on Asia and October Contemporary, etc. and exhibitions in Berlin, Madrid, London, Barcelona, Hamburg, Austria, Seoul, Taiwan, Hong Kong, etc.

餐桌距離

Table Distance

王偉健 Kenji Wong

中國香港 China Hong Kong|2009|DVCAM|Color|Sound|11min 59 sec


餐桌距離是一個以長鏡頭拍攝的錄像實驗。拍攝地點為一個戶外的公共空間。

表演者已被預先安排於鏡頭前作出一系列動作,然而身旁行人的動作并沒有被預先安排,是不可預知的。

這使表演者與行人之間建立了一種實時的互動關係。

打破了舞台,觀眾,與錄像的界限。

Table Distance is an one-shot video experimentation of tableau vivant in public space. The performers were told to do a series of actions in front of the camera.

The performers’ actions are scripted and yet without a clearly defined structure, whereas the pedestrians’ actions are non-scripted and unexpected.

A dynamic relationship between the performers and the pedestrians is created in real time.

The work breaks the boundaries between the stage, the audience, and the video space.


王偉健 Kenji Wong

王偉健喜以錄像、行為藝術及裝置藝術尋索時間與想像的關係。

Kenji Wong specializes in performance art, installation and video.

His works focus on the relationship between time and imagination.

www.kenjiwong.com


實現?...現實

Sentimental Journey

曾詠汶 Tsang Wing Man

中國香港 China Hong Kong|2009|DVD|Color|Sound|17min 30sec

多愁善感的作品敍述:

一個二十二歲的女孩,她的生活應該是怎樣的呢?由光與影和連續的影象拼湊出來的視覺日記,把人生旅程重新編排並呈現在鏡頭下,

揭示被遺忘的一些事情,揭示不想被記起的一些感覺,探討不想被正視的問題,記下不想承認的過去!

讓對生活無能為力的我重新認識自己

用我唯一擁有的鏡頭,文字,聲音去表達一切

This work is an integration of diary and video. This visual diary/visual journey is a representation of a sentimental journey in my life. Life goes on day by day. People repeat doing the same things everyday to make a living. Occasionally, some special and significant things happened which influence your emotion and even can make you can remember with gratitude constantly and forever. However, time won’t stop.

You don’t have time to feel it completely. As time goes by, you may forget or the things may change that you cannot retrieve. Diary is a way to let you record down those memories. Perhaps, you won’t have time to recall it or you don’t want to recall it. It’s here. Saving in somewhere. Just like a treasure. Waiting you to rediscover someday.

On the other hand, I think diary is a good way for me to rediscover and explore myself. As a powerless and incompetent 22 years old young woman, who can just keep on living a busy life, what can I do? The tactics under this situation is to record down my journey and to represent by shooting through camera, words and voice over.

曾詠汶 Tsang Wing Man

一個23歲的女孩

平凡 迷惘 多愁善感

對夢與電影抱有極大熱情

A 23-year-old girl.

Ordinary.

Lost.

Sentimental.

Still have a great passion in her dream and film.

阿運會 

Fanfare for the Common Man
鮑藹倫 Ellen Pau

中國香港 China Hong Kong|2010|DVD|Color|Sound|5min


重建 生活 片段

Reconstruction of everyday images.


生於香港,任職放射診斷師。多年來活躍於本地和國際媒體藝術圈,是一位錄像創作者、獨立製片人、攝影師,MTV導演、藝術評論家和媒體藝術展策展人,同時更是錄映太奇及微波國際媒體藝術節的創辦人。自八十年代起,鮑藹倫開始從事電影及錄像創作,於香港新媒體藝術和藝術教育發展上擔當著關鍵性的角色,其作品更多次被邀參加世界各地的知名藝術節及博覽會,包括威尼斯雙年展、上海雙年展、亞太當代藝術三年展等。除了創作,鮑藹倫亦是媒體藝術展策展人及身兼香港藝術發展局與本地多間博物館及團體的顧問,更是眾多國際和本地比賽的陪審團或評判。於2008年,鮑藹倫被香港藝術館邀請成為首位客席獨立策展人,策劃了該館第一個新媒體藝術展—數碼演義 (Digit@logue),展出眾多本地、中國和台灣新媒體藝術家的作品。擁有視覺文化碩士的鮑藹倫常於香港演藝學院,嶺南大學和香港大學等學府講學,對推廣新媒体藝術不遺餘カ。除此之外,她還被授予香港藝術發展局的藝術發展獎學金及民政事務局局長的嘉許。鮑藹倫經常參予國際項目,例如德國新媒體藝術節 (Transmediale)、歐洲媒體藝術節(European Media Art Festival)的評審工作和ISEA的策展,亦擴大了她對香港以至亞洲新媒體藝術 的發展和歷史研究。

Ellen Pau began working with film and video in Hong Kong in the 1980s. Her earlier works describe and interrogate the cultural / sexual identity in post colonial Hong Kong. Her works are shown in pop music concerts, performances, conferences, and festivals such as European Media Art Festival, Japan Image Forum, Kwangju Biennial, Johannesburg Biennial, Cities on the move, Hong Kong international Film Festival, Asia Pacific Triennial, Venice Biennale etc. She was artist-in-residence in Holland's Mu Art Foundation, Spacex Gallery in the U.K, Griffith University in Australia and Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. She was selected to participate in Asia-Europe Art Exchange and was awarded fellowship for artistic development by Hong Kong Arts Development Council and Asian Cultural Council. Pau also established Videotage and has been the artistic director of Videotage since 1995. She curates multimedia programs for Microwave Festival, museums/galleries and festivals.

我遊

IDoLetHerMyHeadHave

許雅舒 Rita Hui

中國香港 China Hong Kong|2004|DVCAM|Color|Sound|16min 58sec

跑遍兩岸三地還有塞納河拍攝,一個有關名叫小寒的人物故事從文本展開。故事由很多小寒的話語/對白組成,然而眾多零碎的意念都未能開展故事。作者尚 未開始創作,而她本身失落和創作帶來的困擾卻獨立成章。

Five years later, Alice re-appeared in China and Europe, her puzzled heart was transplanted to her creator in the work IdoLetHerMyHeadHave. Expanding geographically from Hong Kong, the Mainland and Taiwan to the Parisian Seine, the protagonist, Siu Han, traveled with her broken conversations and monologues throughout the film. Incomplete yet stands on their own, these broken stories and ideas exemplified the creator’s personal experience of lost and predicament.

許雅舒 Rita Hui

許雅舒, 錄像藝術家、導演, 現任教於香港城市大學創意媒體學院。過去十多年以來積極探討敘事的可能性, 不斷挑戰影像和敘事之外更多呈現表述的方式。處女作《阿明》以其嶄新的敘事方式受到矚目, 並參展於不同的錄像電影節, 作品於98年成為日本Image Forum電影節的優秀作品; 此後的作品如《隧道》、《看不見的城 (牆)》、《愛麗絲在美好世界》、《說謊記》均在香港以及世界各地展出, 受到本地和國際的注目。近年作品《我遊》、《女子狼》、《紅》均構成自成一格的錄像語言, 呈現出作者本人對影像本身的思考。2007年, 與聲音藝術家 Edwin Lo 成立 Rabbit Travelogue, 展開一連串聲音與錄像之間的對話。2009年以香港藝術發展局的資助, 完成了個人首部電影作品《慢性中毒》, 並參展2009年釜山電影節”New Current”, 該電影被喻為香港有史以來首部長篇實驗電影。

Rita Hui graduated from the Hong Kong Academy for Performing Art of taking a Diploma course in Film & TV in 1994. In 1996, she finished the study of Advance Diploma in Film & TV (Major in Editing) and Bachelor of Fine Arts in the Department of Film & TV in the Academy. She is a young talented director. Her work Ah Ming gained wide attention and won the Distinguished Award of the Hong Kong Independent Short Film & Video Award in 1996. In 1998 her work She makes me wanna to die and Invisible City (Wall) all won the Sliver Award in drama category and other category in the Hong Kong Independent Short Film & Video Award. Also, her work Alice in the Wonderland was shown in Hong Kong Arts Center at programme Independent Yours. In 2001, she first time try to work on theater, Tango of Water Sleeves and Beautiful Project and her video work Chionanthus Retusus. And her first set up video installation XX have been showing in Macau Old Ladies House of “Wo…man” Feminine Art. 2004, she finished her new work IdoLetHerMyHeadHave. In 2005 and 2006, she produced her Red Ridding Hood and RED. The later one is her RMIT’s master program final project. In 2007, she has established and lunched Rabbit Travelogue with sound artist Edwin Lo. In 2008, she finished her first featured film with ADC funding, Dead Slowly and it was shown in PIFF 2009's New Current section and HKAIFF.

看得見的聲音,聽得見的形象

VOICES SEEN, IMAGES HEARD

黎肖嫻 Linda Lai

中國香港 China Hong Kong|2009|
mini-DV PAL|B&W, Color|Sound|27min 58sec

一個歷史作者,也是跨界藝術家,用兩個身分進行自我對話,尋根究底,要弄清楚該如何去書寫自家城市香港的歷史。她勘鑽零星散落的聲、影礦庫,重新檢視以視覺為憑據的知識論 -即以“看見”作為“知道”的主要來源的哲學論點 - 的威力與局限。遍閱分佈各處卻類同的搜羅得來的視覺材料,她意圖重新想象她的香港。從市容風貌、文物保育的角度來看,這個香港擁有著流離不穩定的歷史,在地產發展等同社會發展的邏輯下,它不斷被“毀容”再被“整容”;若歷史要寄存於建築實體才能為人民盛載歷史記憶的話,那香港人恐怕都要失憶了。歷史/藝術家的回應,一起步就超越了收復、重構的囹圄;她寧願往“碎片”的開發作為策落,張開碎片的獨立性、自主性,強調影像碎片的“表層”,按其外觀的特質進行抽象拚貼,繼而作成既展示、描繪,也說明、議論,以電影詩學為陳述軌跡的錄像散文。展示觀者面前的,是真實存在過的‘此時此刻’,逼真,卻鬼魅婆娑。每一個碎片誘發著無窮的待發的潛在意義,向著歷史/藝術家招手,而她,就闊然站立於現在,站在過往的邊緣,擁抱過去可觸及卻未必能再現的狀況,策問:歷史如何參透?

A historian, also an interdisciplinary artist, engages in a self-dialogue of how to write the history of her city, Hong Kong. Drilling the disparate mines of sights and sounds, she re-examines the power and limitation of ocular epistemology, which favors visual perception as the dominant form of knowing. As she ploughs her way through the scanty and homogenous visual documents available, she re-imagines a city that has a precarious history of struggling to hold onto its look or preserve its architectural integrity at the mercy of real estate development. In response, she re-constructs a visual essay that is also a collage of lost surfaces and shadowy fragments of past existence. Her meditation leaves open the potential meanings of each of the sight-and-sound fragments that seem to have spoken to her as she asks how feasible it is to access the past.

黎肖嫻 Linda Lai

黎肖嫻為紐約大學電影研究哲學博士,香港城市大學創意媒體學院副教授,跨學科的藝術創作者,以批判理論、電影理論、敘事實驗和民俗田野法的多元結合進行學術及創作活動。2004年,創辦新媒體群體“文字機器創作集”,公開作品展已完成了三集,現為該群體的藝術總監。曾任多個媒體藝術計劃之策展人及評審。其實驗性錄像曾於香港、奧柏荷辛、漢堡、巴黎、巴塞隆拿、柏林、維也納、伯明翰、雪梨、首爾、台北、高雄、馬來西亞、新德里的媒體藝術節展出。

Linda Lai is a Ph.D. in Cinema Studies (NYU), currently Associate Professor at City University's School of Creative Media, and Leader of the Critical Intermedia Studies Expertise Group. She is a Hongkong-based inter-disciplinary artists and curator, and founder of the new media art group The Writing Machine Collective (2004- ). Her works have a strong concern for language and narrativity, grounded in a feminist sensibility that integrates critical theory, film theories and visual ethnography. Her video and digital installation works have been exhibited in Oberhausen, Berlin, Vienna, Birmingham, Barcelona, Paris, Hamburg, Sydney, Kuala Lumpur, New Delhi, Taipei, Kaohsiung, Seoul and Hong Kong.


重寫歷史

Rewriting History

文晶瑩 Phoebe Man

中國香港 China Hong Kong|2010|DVD|Color|Sound|3min 55sec

通過釋放記憶和想像,文晶瑩的作品試圖討論性侵犯的迷思,鼓勵自我完全及互相尊重的社會。

“Rewrite the History” tries to deal with the issue of sexual assault. Through releasing memories and imaginations, making destruction and construction, Phoebe Man’s work tried to confront the misconceptions of the society, to attain self empowerment and to promote a mutual respect society.


香港城市大學創意媒體學院助理教授,多媒體藝術工作者,一九九一年香港中文大學藝術系畢業,二千年於三藩市藝術學院修畢藝術碩士課程,現為墨爾本皇家理工學院博士生。

作品多從探索自我開始,反省建制和挑戰既定概念,精於化物料來表達獨特的訊息。96年首個食物系列的裝置藝術展開始備受關注,之後的衞生巾花系列裝置和錄像作品「慧慧」為她帶來多個獎項和本地及海外發表的機會。網頁作品聊天室系列長期在網上展出,在香港大學的裝置和網絡作品則反思空間的權力關係,近期有關性騷擾的作品「重寫歷史」系列則研究性別間的權力關係。她曾參與多項國際性展覽,包括蛻變突破:華人新藝術(1998-2000)、德國歐州媒體藝術節(2001)、高雄國際貨櫃藝術展(2001)、光州雙年展(2002)、威尼斯雙年展(2003)、網指之間─生活在科技年代:第一屆台灣國際女性藝術節 (2003)、上海雙年展(2004)、韓國女性主義錄像節(2005)、台灣女性影展(2006)、屏東半島藝術季(2006)、被支配的文化 - 對女性的阻礙與阻力: 阿根廷巡迴展(2006-8) 、首爾國際實驗電影錄像節 (2009)。亦曾得過多個獎項,包括第六屆香港獨立短片及錄像比賽公開組優異獎、香港藝術館市政局藝術獎、夏利豪基金會藝術比賽雕塑組季軍,及獲發亞洲文化協會獎助金。

她曾策劃的展覽包括女也 – 女性藝術作品展(2001)、有人做過 – 多媒體藝術裝置展(2002) 、好玩場 (2006-7) 、首爾國際實驗電影/錄像節–香港實驗電影/錄像(2009)、尋常不尋常(2009-10)、EX!T 2010台灣國際實驗媒體藝術展–香港實驗電影/錄像(2010)。她所發表的藝評文章主要是有關策展、裝置、網絡、行為、錄像、觀念藝術,以及香港藝術和文化政策。

她現任香港藝術發展局評審員,曾是Para/Site藝術空間創會成員及董事局成員、香港教育統籌局藝術教育組課程發展議會藝術教育委員會委員。

Phoebe is a conceptual artist, media sculptor, independent curator, writer and an assistant Professor at the City University of Hong Kong’s School of Creative Media. Her works have been shown extensively in international exhibitions include Gwangju Biennale, Venice Biennial, Shanghai Biennial, European Media Art Festival, Videobrasil International Electronic Art Festival, Impakt Festival, International Video & Mulitmedia Art Festival: Videoformes and more. She received awards from the Hong Kong Independent Short Film & Video Competition, Asian Cultural Council, Hong Kong Museum of Art and Philippe Charriol Foundation. Marie Claire magazine selected her to be one of the ten "Smart Women of the 21st Century". Her works are mostly self-exploration, subversive, challenging ideologies and institutions. The video work “Rati” and sanitary napkin flowers series installations have received popular recognition. She graduated from the Chinese University of Hong Kong in 1991, received her MFA degree from the San Francisco Art Institute in 2000 and now she is the doctoral candidate of Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology University . She was also the co-founder and board member of Para/Site Art Space.





Friday, February 3, 2012

Second-hand Material Original Works: Hong Kong Experimental Shorts 2

Date: 15 January 2012
Time: 230 pm
Duration: 90 mins ( follow by artists talk)
Venue: Unit 18, 4/F, Block B, Wah Luen Industrial Centre, 15-21 Wong Chuk Yeung Street, Fotan, N. T., Hong Kong.
Curator: Phoebe Chingying Man (Artist, Assistant Professor of School of Creative Media, City University of Hong Kong)

Second-hand Material Original Works: Hong Kong Experimental Shorts 2 (written by Phoebe Man)
Because of the fast development of online communications technology, the Hong Kong government has recently been reviewing the Copyright Ordinance, mainly to curb internet piracy. Member of Legislative Council, Chan Kam Lam questioned if the artists have the ability to make new works, why they appropriated other people’s work. Peter Cheung, Director of Intellectual Property Department, made it clear that “Kuso” style works are infringement of the copyright law (isdgovhk). The government’s guest lawyer, who is supposed to be familiar with intellectual property rights, said using other people’s works as art material is comparable to stealing. All of a sudden, artists who use found footage or images in their works are liable to criminal charges for suspected theft. The proposed stipulation makes a criminal offence any distribution of (creative) work that resembles an existing work, whether commercial or not, “to such an extent as to affect prejudicially the copyright owner(s)” (Intellectual Property Department of Commerce and Economic Development Bureau). No wonder some critics of the proposal have dubbed it the “Article 23 for the Internet”. The government is using it to combat “Kuso” style political criticism. There is no exemption for art. It might further infringing on Hong Kong’s freedom of speech and creation. This situation worries many artists. Since there is a lot of misunderstanding of art works that used found images and footage, we will hold a screening that shows this kind of works and have forum after the screening. Wish the discussion can be deepened.

Using found footage and images to make art is a common practice with more than a hundred years’ history. In 1919, Duchamp added two moustaches to the face of a copy of a painting of Mona Lisa by which he tried to challenge the sacred status of the master piece. Andy Warhol's copies of images of Campbell soup and Marilyn Monroe brought popular culture into the arena of the art. However, those inspiring master pieces may now be violated of copyright laws in Hong Kong!

In the evening of September 22, the Commerce and Economic Development Bureau hosted a meeting to explain the new amendments of the Copyright Ordinance. The guest lawyer invited by the Government cited two anecdotes to explain how “Kuso” style work violated the law. He said, it is like someone visiting a restaurant. The man gives his car to a valet who has his car parked. The valet takes the car and rides around. The second anecdote concerns a hostess who tells her domestic helper to clean a ring. The domestic helper puts on the ring to show off. These anecdotes immediately aroused a lot of objection on the spot. One of the participants of the meeting objected to the lawyer’s comparing artists to thieves. Another participant complained that the analogies were totally inappropriate as in those two hypothetical situations, no new works were produced. I agree with him. In case of using found footage as art material, the original work will not disappear.

These analogies illustrate how some people misunderstand art. In many cases of artists using found footage, the point is to call the audience’s attention to the original context of the discourse. It is like citation. Artists used ready-made objects such as symbols, signs, posters, video clips and so on, as a metaphor or as a way to redefine the meaning of the original object. Citation is widely acceptable and is an honorable practice in writing. Why do we then make citation a crime in other expressive media? Why can’t we accept pictorial critiques or the use of visual metaphors? In Peter Cheung’s view, we need to ask for the creator’s permission when we use found footage or image (isdgovhk). According to the same logic, when we use a quote, we need to ask for the author’s permission. Furthermore, we can only use it if s/he like our articles. Otherwise, we might “affect prejudicially the copyright owner(s)”. If this is the case, how can anyone even write or publish anymore? According to many regular practices around the world, as long as the artists comply with the principles of fair use, and the works are not for commercial purposes, their works should not be regarded as infringement of copyright.

In the meeting of September 22, Deputy Secretary of Commerce and Economic Development, Christopher Wong said Hong Kong should follow the world standard, since UK and Australia have similar law. However, the participants of the meeting said there was a proposed amendment of UK’s copyright law in August. Derivative or transformative works can be exempted. Why does Hong Kong have to backtrack? Why does the law of the UK and Australia equal to world standard? In many countries such as Belgium, France, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, there is legislation in place to expressly permit caricature, parody or pastiche. Nordic countries allow artistic transformation: that is, the production of a new work based on an existing work does not require the consent of the right holder. Austria, Germany and Portugal have adopted the principle of fair use. They generally agree that derivative or transformative works do not infringe intellectual property rights , but of course these transformations must have kept certain distance from the original (Westkamp 45). Moreover, works can only be used after they are being published. The rationale for many of these exemptions is based on fundamental constitutional rights e.g. freedom of speech and art. (Westkamp 254). Caricature, parody and pastiches can be regarded as independent works. In Sweden, a radio program used the characters of a children book. In 2005, the Swedish Supreme Court agreed that it was a parody and was considered as an independent work rather than an infringement. The case was dropped. (Westkamp 434).

To provide more information for the discussion of this issue, the program “Second-hand Material Original Works 2” will show nine experimental short videos which involve the use of copies of images or found footage. The style of these works vary, some of them are serious research and discussion of culture, not restricted to “Kuso” style art pieces.

TONG Wing Sze’s < City Memory. Memorize Hong Kong > makes the images in the one hundred Hong Kong Dollar bank note alive. New buildings were erected one by one but old objects were shown to have fallen down. The fireworks inside the bank note burnt the note itself. It seems to criticize the over-developed and money ruled society.

Linda LAI’s work expresses her resistance against cliché statements made about Hong Kong while reaching out to its past via found images and sounds . Her work, “VOICES SEEN, IMAGES HEARD” is a dialectical representation of her research process as a historian. With the images and sounds she found, she attempts a narrative of Hong Kong that is different from the (stereo-) typical Hong Kong story. She reveals clichés, and undoes familiar discourses, in order that she can go back to the fragments of the everyday ground level, suggesting that asking the question 'what is Hong Kong' is more important than providing stock answers. This approach is humane and inspiring. With the found materials she collected from different sources, she pieced together a story of the surfaces of Hong Kong that can only be viewed from outside.

IP Yuk Yiu’s work “The Moon is Larger in Peking – short version” also makes use of a well-known Hollywood film whose story that has supposedly happened in Hong Kong. He used a deconstructive method to eliminate some important elements of the film “LOVE IS A MANY SPLENDORED THING”, such as moving images, acting and sound etc. Instead, he used subtitles, flashing of still images and movie clips to compose the film. The style of the film has totally been changed. It also inspires others to think of the form of a film.

Hector RODRIGUEZ’s work “Flowpoints: Kiss,” which also transforms an American classic, used motion tracking software to trace the movement of human beings. The computer codes he wrote generates abstract lines from the footage of Andy Warhol’s film “Kiss.”. The work shows the tension between abstraction and figuration, between movement/rhythm and objecthood. The work tries to grasp the rhythm of the bodies. Although the lines look simple, one can still feel the emotive force of human beings.

Howard Cheng’s work “Reconstruction-Creation” deconstructed found footage to show the in-between reality and imagery. The work is to re-call sub-conscious images from a nonfigurative visual language.

Ellen PAU also used the method of subtraction for her “Fanfare for the Common Man” She chose the daily behaviors of human beings in the animated news, put them together and added the background music of Olympic Games. The work seems to question the dramatic news reporting and to cast doubt on the news’ authenticity. Although the news clips came from different news stories, they are consistent and seem to be telling the same story. Her work grasps the pulse of the times.

CHOI Sai Ho used a different method to treat the news. His work “Star” is like a collage of news, banners and sound of demonstration of the “protecting the historic sites - Star Ferry Pier and Queen’s Pier” event. The rhythm is so intense and the work shows the violence of the news event.

The TV news in LAW Yuk Mui’s “Disabled Novel” shows another image where the news items are just like parts of normal life, quiet, monotonous and melancholy.

Law Man Lok’s video combined YouTube video news together. Although the news does not say the name of the event, people who experienced the event before know what it is about. The video made people think of news censorship.

Works using found footage have rich artistic expressions. It can be historical research, political criticism, life experience, artistic reflection and media exploration, etc. There are many other possibilities that this program cannot include. They are independent and original works. They are very different from the original works. If the Hong Kong Government does not exempt these art works from copyright laws, it will be restricting artistic expressions and may lead to self-censorship. This will stifle the development of art and go against the Government policy of promoting creative industries in Hong Kong.

Reference:
Intellectual Property Department of Commerce and Economic Development Bureau, Hong Kong’s Amended Copyright Law: Guidance Note on Prevention of End-User Piracy in Business, Revised Edition 2010. Web 9, September, 2011. P. 2. < http://www.ipd.gov.hk/eng/intellectual_property/copyright/booklet_piracy_in_business_e.pdf>

isdgovhk , “Unlimited Network Creates Original Miracle," 18 June, 2011. Web 9, September, 2011. Http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h64uPUYa9Bk

Westkamp Guido. The Implementation of Directive 2001/29/EC in the Member States. February, 2007. Web 9 September, 2011.

Special thanks: Videotage, ifva and Linda Lai


Introduction of Artists and Art works

1.
Director: Linda C.H. LAI
Title: VOICES SEEN, IMAGES HEARD
Running Time: 27min 58sec
Year of Production: 2009

A short description of VOICES SEEN, IMAGES HEARD

A historian, also an interdisciplinary artist, engages in a self-dialogue of how to write the history of her city, Hong Kong. Drilling the disparate mines of sights and sounds, she re-examines the power and limitation of ocular epistemology, which favors visual perception as the dominant form of knowing. As she ploughs her way through the scanty and homogenous visual documents available, she re-imagines a city that has a precarious history of struggling to hold onto its look or preserve its architectural integrity at the mercy of real estate development. In response, she re-constructs a visual essay that is also a collage of lost surfaces and shadowy fragments of past existence. Her meditation leaves open the potential meanings of each of the sight-and-sound fragments that seem to have spoken to her as she asks how feasible it is to access the past.

A director’s biography

Linda Lai is a Ph.D. in Cinema Studies (NYU), currently Associate Professor in intermedia arts at the City University's School of Creative Media, and Major Leader of the Bachelor of Arts in Creative Media. She is a Hongkong-based inter-disciplinary artists and curator, and founder of the new media art group The Writing Machine Collective (2004- ). Her works have a strong concern for language and narrativity, grounded in a feminist sensibility that integrates critical theory, film theories and visual ethnography. Her video and digital installation works have been exhibited in Oberhausen, Berlin, Vienna, London, Birmingham, Barcelona, Paris, Hamburg, Sydney, Kuala Lumpur, New Delhi, Taipei, Kaohsiung, Seoul and Hong Kong.

2.
Director: IP Yuk-Yiu
Title: THE MOON IS LARGER IN PEKING short version
Running Time: 7 minutes
Year of Production: 2004

A short description of THE MOON IS LARGER IN PEKING short version
THE MOON IS LARGER IN PEKING is a literal remake of the Hollywood blockbuster LOVE IS A MANY SPLENDORED THING (1955), starring Jennifer Jones and William Holden. Stripping the image and sound away from the original film, the remake retains only the film dialogue in the form of subtitles, rendering the original romantic tale into a hollow and ghostly experience. The film dialogue, taken out-of-context and dissociated from the original images, becomes an allegorical conversation about displacement, alienation and cultural representations.

A director’s biography
Ip Yuk-Yiu is a filmmaker, media artist, art educator and independent curator. His works, ranging from experimental videos to live film performances and media installations, have been showcased extensively at international festivals including Ann Arbor Film Festival (USA), European Media Art Festival (Germany), New York Film Festival (USA), the Image Festival (Canada), VideoBrasil (Brazil) Transmediale (Germany) and Yamagato International Documentary Film Festival (Japan). He has lectured extensively on film, video and media art and has taught at Emerson College, Massachusetts College of Art and the Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Currently he is an Associate Professor at the School of Creative Media, City University of Hong Kong. His recent works explore emergent and computational forms of cinema.

3.
Director: Hector Rodriguez
Title: Flowpoints: Kiss
Running Time: 8 minutes 35 sec
Year of Production: 2011

A short description of Flowpoints: Kiss
Flowpoints: Kiss is a work of experimental video animation that deconstructs Andy Warhol’s movie Kiss using a motion tracking software designed by the artist. The software generates abstract line renderings based on a computational analysis of the micro-movements of the original film. The abstract images represent movements rather than human figures, recalling philosopher Henri Bergson’s remark that “matter is dissolved into action” and “there are no things that move, but only changes in the rhythms of motion”. The sound synthesis technique is a variant of the same algorithm that generates the images.

A director’s biography
Hector Rodriguez is a media artist and theorist based in Hong Kong. His digital animation Res Extensa won an award in the Hong Kong Art Biennial. His game system P3: CoPerspective was a finalist in the graphics meets games competition at the Eurographics Conference. His essays about game studies, cinema, and philosophy have been published in various journals, including Game Studies, Screen, Cinema Journal, and Postscript, among others.

4.
Director: Ellen Pau
Title: Fanfare for the Common Man
Running Time: 4 min
Year of Production: 2010

A short description of Fanfare for the Common Man
Ellen PAU chose the daily behaviors of human beings in the animated news, put them together and added the background music of Olympic Games. The work seems to question the dramatic news reporting and to cast doubt on the news’ authenticity. Although the news clips came from different news stories, they are consistent and seem to be telling the same story.

A director’s biography
Ellen Pau began working with film and video in Hong Kong in the 1980s. Her earlier works describe and interrogate the cultural / sexual identity in post colonial Hong Kong. Her works are shown in pop music concerts, performances, conferences, and festivals such as European Media Art Festival, Japan Image Forum, Kwangju Biennial, Johannesburg Biennial, Cities on the move, Hong Kong international Film Festival, Asia Pacific Triennial, Venice Biennale etc. She was artist-in-residence in Holland's Mu Art Foundation, Spacex Gallery in the U.K, Griffith University in Australia and Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. She was selected to participate in Asia-Europe Art Exchange and was awarded fellowship for artistic development by Hong Kong Arts Development Council and Asian Cultural Council. Pau also established Videotage and has been the artistic director of Videotage since 1995. She curates multimedia programs for Microwave Festival, museums/galleries and festivals.

5.
Director: Tong Wing Sze
Title: City Memory, Memorize Hong Kong
Running Time: 5 minutes
Year of Production: 2008

A short description of City Memory, Memorize Hong Kong

The animation is based on the idea of old Hong Kong bank notes and the development of this city. As a commercial city, Hong Kong is always showing the view of its thriving development. In this work, along with the city’s development, especially under the shoot off fireworks, the old bank note was catch fire and slowly went up in flames. I want to express some valuable things or culture, were losing simultaneously along with the city development.

A director’s biography
Have been immersing in the field of animation, I’m keen to exploit this creative media in the flow of my work. Media art has opened up a wider range of possibilities and experimental means for me to explore interesting and novel visual experiences. For instance my work ‘City Memory, memorize Hong Kong’, the application of digital media offers me another way to express my idea towards the society nowadays. Growing up in Hong Kong such a prosperous city, I am interested to know how the city and the citizen assess the value and I would like to uncover more local culture and also the current society phenomenon of this city in my projects.

6.
Director: CHOI Sai Ho
Title: STAR_(alternative version)
Running Time: 8 mins
Year of Production: 2011

A short description of STAR (alternative version)
Star is illustrating the events of protecting the historic sites - Star Ferry Pier and Queen’s Pier. The result of the demolition of the piers gave a strong message and warning to public based on the lack of the Hong Kong heritage conservation policy and the concern of collective memory. It is also an inquiry of cultural amnesia beneath its fast-paced motion graphics with high rhythm sonic beats. The issues inspire the director to make artworks with his unique audio-visual interpretation illustrating the events by using his own images, frame-by-frame “pen strokes” paintings, video documenting the events, soundscape field recordings, newspaper cutting images, photo collage, etc.

A director’s biography
Choi Sai Ho is an electronic musician and audio-visual artist. Sai Ho has obtained a Master of Fine Arts in Creative Media at the City University of Hong Kong in 2008. He was selected as the first Hong Kong Chinese musician to join the Red Bull Music Academy 2006 in Melbourne, Australia. His works has been selected to Perform Media Festival 2006 (USA), VideoBrazil Festival 2007 (Brazil), Microwave International New Media Arts Festival (Hong Kong), Hong Kong Contemporary Art Biennial 2009, Experimentica 2010 (UK), T(h)ree Concert 2011 (Portugal), etc. Sai Ho was selected as the Hong Kong’s Top 20 Musicians by Hong Kong Time Out Magazine in 2008. In 2009, Sai Ho released as S.T. first audio-visual album Weird Mind. Its title track Weird Mind is selected to the Best of Hong Kong Indie 2009 Number One by Time Out Magazine. He made his first solo multimedia concert “Audio-visual live” in 2010.

English Dialogue (04min40sec – 05min31sec):Speech of Dr. Mirana May Szeto: “…5 months later, on the same day, the government is still ignoring the noises and opinions from the public, still decide to demolish the Queen’s Pier. We and all the Hong Kongers request – No Demolish, No Removal, No Farewell. To preserve Queen’s Pier, it is unnecessary to have 50 million or even above this cost according to the government. Instead, it needs determination. The government is planning to have new buildings, P2 highway, the new pier for military, etc. These are not agreed by Hong Kongers. What we need is not these things. What we need is the Hong Kongers’ piers, Hong Kongers’ harbour, city that belongs to Hong Kongers!

7.
Director: Law Man Lok
Title: The Time of Memoriam
Running Time: 2 mins 11 sec
Year of Production: 2010

A short description of “The Time of Memoriam”
The Time of Memoriam is a tribute to the victims of the recent year's disasters in China. Its subtitle is "there are sounds that you could never hear".

A director’s biography

Law Man-lok is a conceptual artist. Law obtained the BA (Hon) from the Fine Arts Department of the Chinese university of Hong Kong and in 2007, he graduated from the MFA course in Goldsmiths College, University of London. He was the anchor of RTHK TV programme Cultural Magazine. His works emphasize on the synergy of imagination and criticality. Law used to begin with the matters around to make a piece, and recently he showed his concern on the dominant of commercialization in city development. His works were featured in Art responds to 14 QKs (2007, HK), Time After Time (2007, HK), Rag and Bone Fine Art Exhibition (2006, London, UK) and YCCA - Yong Chinese Contemporary Art (2005, HangART-7, Austria). In 2007, his work “Thus the Chinese spake” was shortlisted by London International Creative Competition (http://licc.us/artists/Winners2008Index.html ). Also in 2007, Law was an artist-in-residence at Lingnan University Visual Studies Programme of Department of Philosophy, he organized a series of talks and workshops named “Out of institution”.

8.
Director: Cheng Chilai Howard
Title: Reconstruction-Creation
Running Time: 5 mins 11 sec
Year of Production: 2012

A short description of “Reconstruction-Creation”

Deconstructing re-created footage indicates the in-between of reality and imagery.
Re-calling sub-conscious images from a nonfigurative visual language.

A director’s biography
CHENG Chilai Howard graduated from the School of Creative Media, City University of Hong Kong, His practice focuses on moving images and mixed media installations. His previous works relate to issues concerning society and humanity. His works were screened at the Hong Kong International Film Festival, Loop Video Art Festival, subvision. Kunst. Festival. Off. And October Contemporary as well as at other festivals and exhibitions in Berlin, Madrid, London, Barcelona, Hamburg, Austria, Seoul, Taiwan, and Hong Kong.

9.
Director: Law Yuk-mui
Title: Disabled Novel
Running Time: 17 mins 36 sec
Year of Production: 2010

A short description of Disabled Novel
Disabled Novel is based on the eponymous novel I wrote. This film has no dialogue and is divided into13 parts, 90% of which consists of internal soliloquy. Using the theme of “lost” as a starting point, the film lays bare the odd sense of melancholy that pervades life. Traversing reality, memory and fantasy, it reconstructs the psychological pathways of urban life with broken fragments.

A director’s biography
Law Yuk Mui, graduated from the Master of Fine Arts (MFA), Chinese University of Hong Kong. She focuses on experimental film script, video and conceptual art. In 2007, she is the youngest artist in the exhibition “Reversing Horizons– Artists Reflections of Hong Kong Handover 10th Anniversary” in MOCA, Shanghai, China. In 2005, she awards the 1ST runner-up of the Philippe Charriol Foundation 20th Anniversary Art Competition. In the same year, her work was selected for the entries of Hong Kong Art Biennial 2005. In 2006, she awards the “Alfred S.U. Ho Memorial Prize”, “Cheung’s Fine Art Award”, “CUHK Creativity Student Award” and “The dean’s List of 2005-2006 for outstanding Academic performance (Faculty of Arts)”.

Introduction of Curator
Phoebe is an independent curator, conceptual artist, media sculptor, art critic and the Assistant Professor at the City University of Hong Kong’s School of Creative Media.
Her works have been shown extensively in international exhibitions include Shanghai Biennial, Venice Biennale, Gwangju Biennale and European Media Art Festival. She received awards from the Hong Kong Independent Short Film & Video Competition, Asian Cultural Council, Hong Kong Museum of Art and Philippe Charriol Foundation.
She has curated Hong Kong experimental videos programs for Kuala Lumpur Experimental Film and Video Festival (2011), Videotage in Hong Kong (2011), EX!T 2010: Experimental Media Festival in Taiwan and EXiS: Experimental Film/Video Festival in Seoul (2009). She has also curated exhibition “Making the Familiar Unfamiliar @ Hong Kong Park” in 2009, “Playground” for Kao Yuan University in Taiwan in 2006 and “Wo Man: Feminine Art Exhibition” for Old Ladies House in Macau in 2001. Her researches so far have focuses on Hong Kong media art, Hong Kong cultural policy, curatorial practice, installation art, web art, performance and feminist art.
Phoebe graduated from the Chinese University of Hong Kong in 1991, received her MFA degree from the San Francisco Art Institute in 2000 and now she is the doctoral candidate of Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology University .
http://www.cyman.net/

二手料、原創片:香港實驗短片 2

日期: 2012年1月15日
時間:下午二時半節目長約: 90 分鐘 (節目完結後有藝術家答問時間)
地點: 火炭黃竹洋街15-21號華聯工業中心B座4樓18室節目
策劃: 文晶瑩 (藝術工作者、香港城市大學創意媒體學院助理教授)

文晶瑩策展論述
最近香港新修訂版權條例,打擊網上盜版,立法會議員陳鑑林質疑藝術家若有本事可自己創作,不用引用其他人的作品,知識產權署署長張錦輝在接受《政府新聞網》訪問時明言「惡搞」是侵權 [1]。有律師將二次創作比喻為偷竊。一下子用現成片段和影像做創作的藝術家都可能犯了法,成為賊人!即使是非牟利,若發佈作品/物品「達到損害版權擁有人權利的程度」[2],都是刑事罰行。有人認為這是「網絡廿三條」,政府為打擊「惡搞」而設立,加上藝術創作並未納入豁免範圍內,許多創作人憂慮言論和創作自由再進一步被收窄了。基於在討論過程中可以看到政府官員、律師和許多人都對二次創作有許多誤解,伙炭舉辦了一個全部都是用現成片段或物料製作的實驗短片放映會和研討會,去深化討論。

知識產權署署長張錦輝在接受《政府新聞網》訪問時明言「惡搞」未經版權人同意取用作品是侵權。 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h64uPUYa9Bk;「惡搞」是二次創作的其中一種,二次創作將事物賦與新意義,有時必須用現成的物品或影像,是藝術創作常用的手法,歷史已多於一百年。1919年杜象在蒙羅麗莎的複製品上畫上兩撇鬍鬚去挑戰大師的神聖地位;安廸華荷在六十年代大量複製金寶湯、瑪麗蓮夢露圖像,將通俗文化帶入藝術殿堂,這些劃時代的藝術在今天香港都可能墮入法網,叫人費解。

商務及經濟發展局於9月22日晚主辦了一個會議,向創作人解釋新修訂版權條例。政府邀請的律師將二次創作比喻為偷竊,就如去餐廳吃東西,物主將車交給伙計代客泊車,誰知道這個伙記拿了車自己去兜風;又例如女主人叫家傭拿戒指去清潔,家傭去街時卻拿來自己戴。當下立刻有與會者激烈反對,抗議律師將藝術家當賊辦!亦有與會者反駁,比喻不恰當,二件事 件都沒有產生新作品。我也同意,而實際上,二次創作亦不如比喻所說,會令原本物件因被再創作而消失。以上比喻可以理解一般人對二次創作的誤解。其實二次創作有時使用部分原作是為了使觀眾理解內容的脈絡,就如我們寫文章會引文。有時視覺藝術運用現成物,包括符號、標誌、海報、影像片段等,以挪移、假借、比喻、對話、重組、加減和轉化等方法去進行創作,這些方法寫文章亦同樣會用到。若我們接納寫文章這些慣常做法,會引文或運用比喻,我們為何不能接納圖像式的評論和比喻?若如張錦輝所言(政府新聞處),每次引用都要先問准原作者,還要他/她喜歡我們才可以引用,這樣子怎樣寫和發表文章?那許多學術研究、文章創作都會被癱瘓。一如文章創作,只要我們註明出處,遵守公平使用(fair use)的原則,又不作商業用途,二次創作便不應算侵權。9月22日會上商務及經濟發展局副秘書長王國彬提出香港要跟上世界的標準,因為英國和澳洲等,均有相關法例。但與會者提出英國已於8月初提出要修訂,要豁免二次創作,香港為何要走回頭路?亦有與會者提出為何英國和澳洲等於世界標準?許多國家例如比利時、法國、立陶宛、盧森堡、馬爾他、荷蘭、波蘭、西班牙都有法律明文容許二次創作(caricature, parody or pastiche)。其實,北歐國家容許藝術轉化,即是用舊有作品製作新作品不用問准原作者的同意。奧利地、德國和葡萄牙都採用公平使用的原則。她們都普遍認同轉化舊作和從舊作衍生出來的作品都不算侵權,但當然這些轉化都要和原作有一段距離(Westkamp 45)。還有作品要公開發表後,別人才可以作二次創作。這些豁免的理據許多時都是基於憲法所賦與的言論和藝術自由的權利(Westkamp 254)。二次創作可視為獨立作品,瑞典最高法院於2005年有一案例,一廣播節目用了兒童故事書的人物創作,被視為parody「惡搞」,是一項獨立創作而不是侵權 (Westkamp 434)。




為提供更多資料去討論這個課題,今次「二手料、原創片」節目將放映九個利用現成符號、片段去創作的實驗短片。作品的創作風格不只是現今風行一時的惡搞類型的政治諷刺作品,亦包含了其他藝術取向,以至嚴肅的理念或文化討論。唐詠詩的《回憶.城市》讓香港百元紙幣內的圖像活起來,圖像內不斷豎起一幢又一幢的摩天大樓,舊有的事物卻一件接一件殞落。紙幣內城市繁華、綻放的燦爛煙花卻把銀紙本身也燒掉了。作品似在批判過度發展、金錢掛帥的社會。同樣表達對香港的感受,特別是香港歷史書寫的感懷,黎肖嫻的作品《看得見的聲音,聽得見的形象》,以研究論述的方式,集合了一批與「香港」過去有關的現成影象和聲塊,重新探索「香港」的定義,一層層地剝去種種附加在這城市上的陳腔濫調,將日常中的細節再度抽絲剝繭,把「尋回屬於香港的單一定義」的衝動化為一串的問號,強調「問」比「單一答案」更重要。這個做法相當富人味且發人深省。葉旭耀的作品《北京的月亮比較圓 - 短片版》也用了以香港做故事地點的荷李活影片。他用解構的方式處理《生死戀》,去除一般組成影片的重要完素,包括流動影像、人物演技、聲音等,只用一閃即過的定格硬照、短片和字幕去組成影片,一方面帶出與原作全然不同的影片風格,另一方面引發人反思影片的形式。羅海德的作品《流動點:吻》用了不同的方法轉化美國經典作品,他用自己設計的motion tracking軟件去追踪1963年安廸華荷的電影《吻》的人物動態,將有關數據轉換成一些抽象筆觸,作品顯示抽象和具象之間的張力,呈現物象不同節奏的動態。看似抽象純粹的動態線條,卻仍感受到情緒燥動。鄭智禮《重建-創造》解構重新創作的舊片段,顯示現實和影像之間的重叠。由抽象的視覺語言重尋潛意識的影像。鮑藹倫的《阿運會》則用了減法,抽出動新聞中放大了的平常行為放在一起,配上運動會的音樂,似在諷刺新聞的真實性和極端的手法。這些來自不同新聞的故事,出奇地配合,似是在說同一個故事,掌握了刻下的時代持色。蔡世豪用新聞的方法不同,他的作品《天星 (另一版本)》將保衛天星和皇后碼頭的新聞、示威標語、圖片、集會聲音等剪碎、劃花再拼貼,加上緊湊的節奏,充份表現出新聞事件的暴力感。出現在羅玉梅《殘話小說》的新聞片段、YouTube片段卻顯出不同的感覺,似是平常生活的一部分,安靜的、單調的、鬱鬱悶悶的。羅文樂《悼念時光》全都以YouTube新聞片段組成,雖然沒有說明事件名稱,但曾經歷過事件的人,也知道所指何事,作品令人聯想起新聞檢查。

從以上作品可見,這種形式的創作有很豐富的藝術表現,有歷史研究、政治批判、探索經典、生活感受、藝術反思、城市評論、媒體探究 …當然還有其他許多可能性,節目不能盡錄。正如許多二次創作和這些作品一樣,都有原創性、獨持性,和所採用的物料都有很大的距離,是獨立的作品。若得不到法律豁免刑責,將會限制了藝術的表現形式和表達自由,令藝術家作出過多自我審查,窒礙藝術和社會創意的發展,與特區政府推動創意產業的政策背道而馳。

*圖: Ger Choi

參考資料:

1. 政府新聞處, “網絡無限 締造原創奇蹟” 2011年6月18日, 2011年9月9日。《 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h64uPUYa9Bk
2. 王國彬, “加強保護版權,推動創意發展” 香港政府新聞網, 2011年06月15日, 網頁2011年9月9日。《 http://www.news.gov.hk/tc/about/index.shtml

3. Westkamp Guido. The Implementation of Directive 2001/29/EC in the Member States. 2007年February月. 2011年Sept月29日 .



持別感謝:Videotage, ifva, 黎肖嫻




藝術家介紹和創作者自述作品黎肖嫻黎肖嫻為紐約大學電影研究哲學博士,香港城市大學創意媒體學院副教授,跨學科的藝術創作者,以批判理論、電影理論、敘事實驗和民俗田野法的多元結合進行學術及創作活動。2004年,創辦新媒體群體“文字機器創作集”,公開作品展已完成了三集,現為該群體的藝術總監。曾任多個媒體藝術計劃之策展人及評審。其實驗性錄像曾於香港、奧柏荷辛、漢堡、巴黎、巴塞隆拿、柏林、維也納、伯明翰、雪梨、首爾、台北、高雄、馬來西亞、新德里的媒體藝術節展出。

《看得見的聲音,聽得見的形象》一個歷史作者,也是跨界藝術家,用兩個身分進行自我對話,尋根究底,要弄清楚該如何去書寫自家城市香港的歷史。她勘鑽零星散落的聲、影礦庫,重新檢視以視覺為憑據的知識論 -即以“看見”作為“知道”的主要來源的哲學論點 - 的威力與局限。遍閱分佈各處卻類同的搜羅得來的視覺材料,她意圖重新想象她的香港。從市容風貌、文物保育的角度來看,這個香港擁有著流離不穩定的歷史,在地產發展等同社會發展的邏輯下,它不斷被“毀容”再被“整容”;若歷史要寄存於建築實體才能為人民盛載歷史記憶的話,那香港人恐怕都要失憶了。歷史/藝術家的回應,一起步就超越了收復、重構的囹圄;她寧願往“碎片”的開發作為策落,張開碎片的獨立性、自主性,強調影像碎片的“表層”,按其外觀的特質進行抽象拚貼,繼而作成既展示、描繪,也說明、議論,以電影詩學為陳述軌跡的錄像散文。展示觀者面前的,是真實存在過的‘此時此刻’,逼真,卻鬼魅婆娑。每一個碎片誘發著無窮的待發的潛在意義,向著歷史/藝術家招手,而她,就闊然站立於現在,站在過往的邊緣,擁抱過去可觸及卻未必能再現的狀況,策問:歷史如何參透?http://www.lindalai-floatingsite.com/content/video/data/published/Voices-seen-Images-heard/index.html


葉旭耀葉旭耀是電影製片人、媒體藝術家、藝術教師和獨立策展人。他的藝術創作領域涉及實驗錄像、現場電影表演和媒體裝置等,其作品曾在多個國際電影節上展覽,其中包括安娜堡電影節(Ann Arbor Film Festival)(美國),歐洲媒體藝術節(European Media Art Festival)(德國),紐約電影節(美國),圖像藝術節(the Image Festival)(加拿大),巴西錄像節(Video Brasil)(巴西),新媒體藝術節(Transmediale)(德國)和山形國際紀錄片電影節(Yamagato International Documentary Film Festival)(日本)等。他曾就電影、錄像和媒體藝術等議題進行過多次演講,還曾在艾默生學院、麻省藝術學院和香港理工大學任教。目前他在香港城市大學創意媒體學院任職副教授。他最近的作品主要是在探索電影製作的新興電腦技術形式。
《北京的月亮比較圓 - 短片版》《北京的月亮比較圓》將詹妮弗﹒鐘斯(Jennifer Jones)和威廉﹒霍爾登(William Holden)主演的荷里活大片《生死戀》(LOVE IS A MANY SPLENDORED THING,1955)重新剪輯翻做。原來的圖像和聲音從影片中剝離,翻做作品只保留電影對白的字幕。原本浪漫的愛情故事被重新詮釋後帶給人空洞、幽靈般的體驗。脫離了原片背景和圖像的電影對白成為一場有關移位,異化和文化表徵的頗有諷喻意味的對話。

羅海德羅海德是一名數碼藝術家和理論家。他的作品Res Extensa獲得2003年度「香港藝術雙年展」最佳數碼作品獎項。他設計的遊戲系統CoPerspective於2006年度維也納Eurographics會議Games Meets Graphics比賽中入選決賽。他所撰寫關於電影理論、數碼藝術和遊戲研究的文章曾於Screen、Cinema Journal及Game Studies中刊載。羅海德參與過多個大型藝術與科技會議,亦曾擔任微波國際新媒體藝術節藝術總監。他現為香港城市大學創意媒體學院副教授,教授當代視覺藝術、遊戲研究、電影理論、電腦程式設計和批判理論。

《流動點:吻》《流動點:吻》是一個實驗錄像動畫作品,它運用藝術家設計的運動跟蹤軟件解構了安迪﹒華荷(Andy Warhol)的電影《吻》(Kiss)。該軟件通過對華荷影片的微運動進行計算分析而衍生出抽象的線條。這些抽象的圖像顯示了人物的活動而非人物形象,讓人想起哲學家柏格森(Henri Bergson)的名言:「物質在活動中消失」及「世間的物質並沒有活動,只是活動的節奏在變化而已」。影片的聲音合成技術運用了衍生圖像的同一運算法則,是其一個變體。
網頁: http://sweb.cityu.edu.hk/gestus/


鮑藹倫


鮑藹倫生於香港,任職放射診斷師。多年來活躍於本地和國際媒體藝術圈,是一位錄像創作者、獨立製片人、攝影師,MTV導演、藝術評論家和媒體藝術展策展人,同時更是錄映太奇及微波國際媒體藝術節的創辦人。自八十年代起,鮑藹倫開始從事電影及錄像創作,於香港新媒體藝術和藝術教育發展上擔當著關鍵性的角色,其作品更多次被邀參加世界各地的知名藝術節及博覽會,包括威尼斯雙年展、上海雙年展、亞太當代藝術三年展等。《阿運會》鮑藹倫的《阿運會》用了減法,抽出動新聞中放大了的平常行為放在一起,配上運動會的音樂,似在諷刺新聞的真實性和極端的手法。這些來自不同新聞的故事,出奇地配合,似是在說同一個故事,組成了一齣當代的實驗電影。


唐詠詩2010 – Hochschule für bildende Künste Hamburg, 德國

2006 – 2008 澳洲皇家墨爾本理工大學(與香港藝術學院合辦) 文學士 (純藝術)

1997 TAFE NSW, 澳洲 / 藝術證書展覽
12/2010 ‘第七屆深圳國際水墨雙年展──香港水墨’ , 關山月美術館, 深圳

07/2010 ‘承傳與創造──水墨對水墨’, 上海美術館, 上海, 中國

05/2010 ‘點滴’ (個展), 藝術公社, 香港

05/2010 香港當代藝術雙年獎 2009, 香港藝術館, 香港


《回憶.城市》



在香港這個繁榮的地方長大和生活,看到四處都是高樓大廈、商場、酒店,以及高聳入雲的商業大樓,另一方面一些舊社區或建築物卻在重建或清拆。很多有特色、有趣的舊社區和本土文化也差不多被新式的商場所取代,香港的面貌和價值觀也趨向單一化,確感到可惜。對於土生土長的香港人,香港可愛之處並不限於她的商業價值,更不應獨在煙花燦爛的維港。每個地方發行的紙幣或錢幣,通常都會將當地重要的事物或人物作為設計元素,除了燦爛的維多利亞港,我想香港還有很多有代表性的、有特色的本土文化同樣值得保存和尊重。而以電腦動畫作為創作的媒介,除了因為自己曾在這個行業工作了一段時間,也因為這個媒介提供了更多的可能性和實驗性,讓我從中尋找不少有趣的表達方式。






蔡世豪



電子音樂人兼聲影藝術家蔡世豪,2008年於城市大學創意媒體學院碩士畢業,曾於世界各地多個國際性媒體藝術影展中放映或演出,包括美國Perform Media Festival 2006、巴西VideoBrazil Festival 2007、香港微波國際新媒體藝術節、香港當代藝術雙年展2009、英國Experimentica 2010及葡萄牙T(h)ree音樂會2011等。2006年他代表香港參與澳洲墨爾本舉行的Red Bull音樂學院,成為是次國際性音樂交流活動中的首位香港音樂人。2008年更被Time Out Magazine選為二十大本地音樂人。2009年年底以S.T.名義推出其首張個人唱片專輯Weird Mind,其同名作品Weird Mind更被Time Out選為The Best of Hong Kong Indie 2009全年本地最佳音樂作品第一位。2010年年底舉行首個個人多媒體音樂會《聲.影.演》。
《天星》



《天星》是對文化失憶疑問之下的快節奏高速聲音錄像演繹,曾於2007年「微波國際新媒體藝術節」的放映節目「光影同流者」中作首度放映,以及2008年希臘雅典MIR Festival內放映。曾經有人說香港是留不住回憶的都市。當創作《天星》的時候,天星與皇后碼頭拆卸事件提醒了身為香港人的作者反思其身份與本土文化的議題,以至其他題目例如城市發展與保育具歷史價值的公共空間兩者之間的平衡。






羅文樂



羅文樂是概念藝術家,01年於香港中文大學藝術系獲取文學士,07年於英國倫敦大學金匠學院完成藝術碩士課程,曾當香港電台電視節目《4維賣藝》主持。他的作品著重知性與幻想的結合,並擅長以身邊周遭環境和時物作創作的起始點。近來他的作品則表達了他對全球單一化、商業化的城市發展感到焦躁和恐懼。近年展覽包括:《藝術回應拾肆個QK多人展》(2007,香港)、《時往時復》 (2007,香港)、《Rag and Bone Fine Art Exhibition》 (2006,英國倫敦)及《YCCA - Yong Chinese Contemporary Art》 (2005,奧地利HangART-7)等。2007年,羅氏作品「那位中國人如是說」獲London International Creative Competition 列入候選名單。(http://licc.us/artists/Winners2008Index.html)。同年,他亦於香港嶺南大學哲學系視覺文化課程作駐場藝術家,組織一系列藝術講座及工作坊,名為《Out of institution》。

《悼念時光》



《悼念時光》是悼念近年國家的各項災難,其副題是「有些聲音你永遠聽不到」。

鄭智禮



鄭智禮畢業於創意媒體學院及香港科技大學,主修新媒體藝術創作。他曾於數個國際展覽展出作品,其作品《門》被收錄於 Para/Site 藝術空間國際巡迴錄像節目這是香港,並於巴賽隆拿、首爾及漢堡等地展出。
http://www.chilaihoward.com
《重建-創造》解構重新創作的舊片段,顯示現實和影像之間的重叠。
由抽象的視覺語言重尋潛意識的影像。


羅玉梅

2002-2006 香港中文大學(文學士),主修藝術

2008-2010 香港中文大學 藝術碩士個展

2010 《殘話小說》中大藝術 2010, 香港中文大學新亞書院誠明館,


群展

2011 《第十五屆ifva短片節》香港藝術中心

2010 《月球概念店》Arthub Asia, 中國上海

2010 《呂振光: 有你 ∙ 無我 從何兆基到鄺鎮禧 》奧沙畫廊,香港


《殘話小說》



《殘話小說》的電影文本是根據本人所寫的一本同名小說為藍本。全片為默片,分13節, 95%為內心獨白。以“lost”作為起始,拷問生活中莫名的惆悵感。內容穿梭現實、回憶、幻象,以殘段組織個人生命在城市生活的心理軌跡。






策展人簡介: 文晶瑩香港城市大學創意媒體學院助理教授,多媒體藝術工作者,獨立策展人和藝評人。一九九一年香港中文大學藝術系畢業,二千年於三藩市藝術學院修畢藝術碩士課程,現為墨爾本皇家理工學院博士生。

她的作品曾於多個國際展覽展出,包括德國歐州媒體藝術節、光州雙年展、威尼斯雙年展、上海雙年展。亦曾得過多個獎項,包括第六屆香港獨立短片及錄像比賽公開組優異獎、香港藝術館市政局藝術獎、夏利豪基金會藝術比賽雕塑組季軍,及獲發亞洲文化協會獎助金和多個香港藝術發展局計劃資助。
她曾獲多個機構邀請策劃香港實驗媒體節目,其中包括吉隆坡實驗電影及錄像節、錄影太奇、EX!T 2010台灣國際實驗媒體藝術展和首爾國際實驗電影及錄像節。獲邀請策劃有關香港當代藝術的展覽則包括台灣高苑科技大學的「好玩場」 和澳門婆仔屋的「女也 – 女性藝術作品展」。她的研究主要集中於香港媒體藝術、香港的文化政策、策展、裝置藝術、網絡藝術、行為藝術和女性藝術。
詳細作品集和履歷: http://www.cyman.net

Thursday, December 15, 2011

香港實驗電影與錄像概況

作者: 文晶瑩

談到香港實驗電影與錄影,近年已較少人用「實驗」,較多用「獨立」這個詞語來形容,分別可能在於「實驗」大多是關於形式,「獨立」多指向主題與精神。形容詞的變異顯示了近年焦點的轉移,大氣候都是著重主題和內容,但媒體本身的探索,仍有其獨特之處,而且獨立電影與錄影,通常都採用非主流的拍攝、製作和發放方法,也有實驗的成份。本文會採用較廣義的定義,嘗試探討這類電影與錄影在香港的發展和特色。

實驗媒介與科技發展密切回到最初,實驗電影與科技的發明相當密切,新的科技,造就了新的語言。六十年代香港藝術家製作十六米厘電影,七十年代則是超八米厘電影,八十年代是V8攝影機,九十年代 Hi-8,九十年代中流行數碼錄影,二千年開始則慢慢是互聯網的天下了,現在YouTube, Facebook, 和 Twitter是許多人生活的一部分,作品發放的管道多了,形式亦隨之而改變,影片大多短小精悍,有時兼有互動的成份。藝術家都對新工具的使用、材料、製作過程和藝術形式相當敏感,他們用影片和錄影帶作許多實驗,嘗試尋找形式上的局限性和可能性,例如毛文羽在菲林上刺洞,馮美華作品特別突顯錄影光亮沒質感的特徵。藝術家們質疑媒介的純粹性,創作跨媒介和多媒介的作品,有現場混合錄影表演 (Live VJ performance)、錄影裝置、劇場和其它影像媒體互動創作。現在工具和材料的費用變得越來越便宜,大部分家庭都有攝錄機,加上大眾化和免費的廣播管道,錄影和數位媒體的題材趨向更多樣化,實驗新事物的費用愈低,結果藝術創作更加能貼近生活,更加自由,例如近年在香港網上熱爆的獨立樂隊My Little Airport用YouTube和網上社交網站播放他們的音樂,用手機制作MV,低成本之餘卻不減影響力。

沒有主流的實驗片在風氣自由的社會,看來各種各樣的風格和形式都會並存。香港沒有主流的實驗影片和錄影。然而,我們有一個發展成熟的電影業、電視業,肥皂劇、動作片、警匪片是主流,影響力不少,錄影公開比賽的參賽作品有不少是不同類型的愛情和警匪動作片。有些創作者拍攝短片,是想進入電影工業。有如此強大的商業電影工業背景,所以反彈的力量亦不弱,內容方面或許可概括為二個極端: 非常個人或非常政治。 因為香港的實驗片沒有商業市場和藝術市場,所以大部分的創作都是非商業的,亦沒有時興的藝術風格,題材大都是關於個人生活或社會問題。有的作品較概念化,風格和題材較偏鋒,例如羅琛堡極抽象的錄影,觸及難以名狀的欲望,從不擔心觀眾悶不悶的問題。數碼錄影的輕便,亦造就了許多日記式和遊記式的創作,例如黎肖嫻民族志式的錄影,橫跨十多年,亦富探索研究的興味;許雅舒的「我遊」,既是遊記、日記亦是故事人物和作者的較量。有較學院的,葉旭耀的作品經常會拿經典、現成的影片再創造。有視覺藝術家的概念作品,例如梁美萍的<蟻亡錄>,活生生捉了17只蟻,夾在幻燈片中間,在大螢幕看大只蟻,逐只去世,呈現一出真實的生死掙扎影片。還有許多不同風格的作品,不能盡錄。

漸多有關城市認同的影片非常個人或非常政治,或許你會說這不就是實驗片的特色?沒有商業壓力,自由度較大,作品就會變得個人,亦可以涉及敏感的政治題材。是的,我看香港和其它地方不同之處是在於國家歷史方面的題材較少,香港大多數實驗創作對一些大論述都采抗拒態度,探討媒體本身、個人身份,展現個人性格和生活的題材則很豐富。原因可能和過往香港殖民地教育有關。殖民地教育往往避免談到城市的過去,國家的認同或討論中國公民身分。這個特色由來已久,就像香港實驗電影開始的60年代,那時較有組織的「大學生活電影會」的電影,大都受歐洲新浪潮電影和美國的前衛電影影響,就算北面正沸沸燙燙的進行文化大革命,都很少有涉及政治的實驗電影。但這種情況正逐漸改變,經過 1989年「六四天安門事件」和1997年香港移交給中國等等事件後,香港藝術家對香港的認同逐漸增加,更多作品是關於香港城市、或與及她與中國的關係,例如麥海珊2007年的實驗錄影片《唱盤上的單行道》,就是香港回歸十年的內省詩。社會行動式的紀錄片的數量亦有所增加,一些藝術工作者成立組織去支援弱勢社羣和處理社會問題,他們製作錄影的手法與主流電影電視不同,他們甚至教弱勢社羣用拍片的手法來為自己爭取權益,對抗不合理的社會政策,例如以前的「錄影力量」(1989 - )、「錄影力量」分裂出來的「影行者」(2007-) 便採用這類方法,影行者每年與自治八樓合辦香港社會運動電影節,播放這類作品。另外一類非行動式的紀錄片,「采風電影有限公司」(2008 - ),也關注社會問題,旨在推廣和發行紀錄片。其核心成員張虹多採用一個「旁觀者」的角度來拍攝紀錄片,與一般電視上的紀錄片不同之處,是片中並無旁述、訪問或配樂,追求平實自然的攝影風格。

以組織活動形式來推廣香港實驗片往往由藝術組織和熱心的個別人士組織活動、影展和比賽來推進。它不像西洋藝術史般,以藝術理論或風格來推進,亦不見有個別年代的主流風格,往往都是百花齊放的。據INDIE - ISSUE[1]和張鍵[2]的資料,最早較有組織的影展應該是由大學生活電影會(大影會,1966 - 1970)在1968年籌辦的『大影會會員作品發表會』,之後他們還舉辦了『業餘電影展』及『業餘電影展70』,他們聚集了一批電影藝術愛好者,大家一起欣賞西方實驗電影,互相支持彼此創作,對推動實驗電影起著關鍵作用,故此有人稱60年代的香港實驗電影為「大影會時代」。同期一班駐香港的外地人組織的「第一影室(StudioOne)」的貢獻亦不容忽視,他們持續地舉辦了30年(60年代至90年代) 藝術電影放映活動,亦滋潤了不少創作人。1970年部分大影會的會員張鍵、梁良、李耀明回應一份有份量的影評刋物中國學生週報的號召創辦了衛影會,他們集中搞實驗電影展,共搞過六年實驗電影展,於72年舉辦了八米厘實驗電影觀摩影展及於73,74年舉辦全港實驗電影觀摩展,而香港專上學生聯會于73年也舉辦了全港實驗電影比賽,此外還有普及電影社、青影會、香港電影會、八米厘電影會等等間歇的舉行活動,八米厘電影會出版過一本雜誌《八米厘》。1974年,新組成的火鳥電影會亦開始半公開式的電影作品展,之後成為積極推動獨立實驗電影的一分子。1975年實驗電影展的規模及範圍更大,因為衛影會得到政府資源,首次與市政局合辦影展。他們共合辦了75及76年兩屆,1977年火鳥電影會加入舉辦,而到78年火鳥正式接手與市政局合辦,名稱亦由實驗電影展改為香港獨立短片展。香港獨立短片展由1978年一直辦至84年,之後便沒有再舉辦。同年期,1977年,香港藝術中心成立,他們在推廣電影藝術在歷史上有重要的地位。同年香港市政局主辦了“第一屆香港國際電影節”,至今已經是第三十四屆。由於他們在發掘亞洲和中國的新製作方面有成績,由八十年代起逐漸建立世界性的地位。過後一年(1978年)成立的電影文化中心,由一班留學回港的學生如許鞍華、徐克、嚴浩等籌組,他們主要用課程學習來推廣電影文化,亦出過不少著名導演如陳果。感覺上70年代初的實驗電影看來熱鬧非常,拍電影亦是一般家庭的時麾玩意,但到70年代末便沉寂下來,其實那時候大家正在摸索錄影新形式。直到1992年市政局再創辦香港獨立短片比賽,而香港藝術中心於1993年亦宣佈舉辦獨立錄影比賽。這兩個組織分別進行了兩年短片及錄影比賽,95年為了讓資源集中,遂決定合辦香港獨立短片及錄影比賽,繼續鼓勵有志創作短片及錄影人士參加,而這個比賽一直舉行至今。在1993年,香港電影資料館籌畫辦事處成立,大部分是商業電影方面的收藏,實驗電影方面較少。

兩個源頭: 有傾向電影的,有傾向視覺藝術的上段歷史的描述較傾向由電影藝術方面出發,其實不少視覺藝術家有用錄影作為創作媒介,實踐他/她們對影像的創作概念。1983年,香港三個藝術機構(香港歌德學院、進念二十面體、香港藝術中心) 舉辦了一個重要的「First International Video Art Festival」 (第一屆國際錄影藝術節),展覽展出了來自歐、美、日和加拿大的錄影作品,更有錄影工作坊,之後亦有一些錄影藝術、錄影雕塑之類的展覽。86年錄影太奇成立,一直到現在,她都是香港最活躍推廣錄影和媒體藝術的機構。初期錄影太奇是以電影和錄影為主,後來漸開放加入其它電腦媒體,這亦是香港實驗媒體的發展趨向。96年錄影太奇創辦「微波錄影節」,播映錄影藝術,後來因科技不斷進步,第二年已開始加入其它藝術媒體,2006年由錄影太奇分出來,稱為「微波國際新媒體藝術節」成為一獨立機構,是香港唯一一個實驗媒體藝術節,介紹外地作品之餘,亦是本地創作的展出平臺。錄影太奇於97年出版了一本有關錄影、新媒體藝術雜誌VTEXT,可惜只出版了一期。雖然資源緊絀,民間的藝術團體為推廣本地影像藝術出了不少力。

兩位香港錄影阿媽熱心推動實驗媒介的個別人士不能不提馮美華和鮑藹倫。馮美華和鮑藹倫是火鳥其中兩位成員,後來加入進念.二十面體實驗劇團繼續創作錄影及參與錄影與劇場的跨媒體創作。鮑藹倫與馮美華、黃志輝、毛文羽等人于1986年成立錄影太奇,及後主要由鮑藹倫支撐,歷任藝術總監。錄影太奇推動實驗錄影和媒體藝術20多年,鮑藹倫有「香港錄影阿媽」的稱號(相對錄影之父白南准) ,雖然鮑藹倫不大喜歡這個稱號,而的確稱號和她的形象不相配,她風華正茂又有型,但鮑藹倫樂於助人且落力提攜後進,創作豐富,冠上這個尊稱大概除她以外沒人會異議。另一位阿媽馮美華亦是一個落力培育新人的獨立文化工作者,她曾策劃多個錄影與新媒體藝術的節目,最具規模的可算是2001年搜尋和研究香港早年至2001年的獨立短片和錄影作品,為香港電影資料館策劃了「自主世代─六十年代至今自主、實驗、另類創作」研究、放映和展覽活動,之後一直都不見有如此規模的研究計畫。近年她減少創作,主力中學藝術教育,出任香港兆基創意書院署理校長,亦是灣仔富德樓藝術團夥的主理人,為香港藝術家創造空間環境。

充分在學術場所發展香港的大學在培養和推廣電影和錄影藝術被視為另一個強大的力量,如黎肖嫻說「嚴肅的研究為本的創作,大抵只能在大學的學術場所才可能充分發展。」[3]許多創作人都有學院背景。70年代中期香港中文大學校外進修部和香港浸會大學已經開始提供電影課程,96年香港演藝學院成立電影電視學院,98年香港城市大學成立香港首間媒體藝術書院-創意媒體學院,裡面有一個批判性跨媒體實驗室學系,培養了不少創作實驗媒體的學生。香港理工大學、香港專業教育學院、香港知專設計學院也有較商業的媒體設計課程。每年的香港獨立短片及錄影比賽就是這些學院學生較量的場所。近年,校園電視在中學和小學的發展已越來越普遍,加上香港兆基創意書院成立,錄影藝術有更多生力軍。

實驗片/獨立電影的發放渠道要發表作品,除了參與比賽、媒體藝術節 (微波國際新媒體藝術節及香港國際電影節)之外,近年獨立電影多了發表的管道。以前只有香港藝術中心,放映獨立電影,近年來,一些商業電影院例如百老匯電影中心,The Grand戲院及MCL德福戲院也會放映獨立影片和電影吸引不同類型的觀眾去電影院。這些電影院亦會提供場地給獨立電影和錄影團體舉辦電影節,例如藍空間的InDPanda國際短片節,影意志的香港亞洲獨立電影節等。影意志及錄影太奇亦有介紹香港藝術家的作品到外國影展。當然,藝術家可以簡單地上傳他們的影片在自己的網站,社交網站或YouTube去發表作品。
有線電視藝術頻道談了多年也沒成果,社交網站Facebook, Twitter或YouTube一出,相關討論可以置之高閣了。社交網站和YouTube這些簡單又接觸面廣泛的發行管道或多或少影響著藝術生態,它使普通人可以成為明星,發表自己的作品再不是難事,愈偏激的愈能增加點擊率。部分藝術家的作品具顛覆和批判性,例如My Little Airport的音樂錄影《瓜分林瑞麟三十萬薪金》、 (林瑞麟是香港的香港政制及內地事務局局長)《讓我搭一班會爆炸的飛機》,去年成立的HKADC(香港藝術探索頻道,同樣是香港藝術發展局的簡稱)發表了多個藝術作品紀錄片批評香港藝術館。另邊廂,走大眾化誇張路線的亦可以突圍而出。今年三月一羣媒體畢業生製作「Dream's幫」短片系列,扮鬼扮走入鬧市,和公眾互動。短短3日已於youtube獲10萬次點擊,廣受線民歡迎。這類誇張風格和強大的傳播媒體不無關係。

實驗片融資事實上,現行的免費管道不能帶來收入,只是旺丁不旺財,不能支持藝術創作。創作人大都有一份正職支持自己的創作,有老師、有做藝術行政的。創作人可以向香港藝術發展局(1996 - )申請資助,金額視乎製作計畫而定,資助額由港幣7萬元至56萬元不等。票房和銷售 DVD亦是收入來源。影意志有幫助藝術家發行DVD。

結語實驗電影和錄影發展的道路是漫長和艱難的。在香港,商業電影和電視仍是主流,這個金錢掛帥的社會不夠開放和多元去容納和支持實驗創作,藝術長期處於邊緣位置,幸好我們還有一班有活力的藝術工作者,積極創作之餘亦推廣藝術。香港現在有一個機遇,政府將建設西九龍文娛藝術區,政府將投入更多資源,商界亦突然文化起來,多舉辦文化活動,雖然不能恵及所有藝術形式,但至少可帶動一些氣氛,希望可以使本地文化藝術有更蓬勃的發展。

作者:文晶瑩 (香港城市大學創意媒體學院助理教授)
2010/5/2

參考資料
1. 「自主世代─六十年代至今自主、實驗、另類創作」 (節目場刋), 馮美華策劃, 香港電影資料館編制,香港 , 香港電影資料館, 2001年9月。2. 「香港自主電影三十年」,INDIE - ISSUE NO 587 / 2001-10-11,http://www.douban.com/group/topic/4232180/,2008年9月23日。3. 藝術檔案, 香港獨立電影發展歷史, http://www.artda.cn/www/20/2008-11/900.html, 2008年11月10日。
4. 黎肖嫻,〈為香港(新) 媒體藝術構築初步的歷史:考古、公眾的認知、藝術家的教育〉,《香港視覺藝術年鑒2007》,陳育強編,香港中文大學藝術系,2008年12月,頁115-140。
5. 香港國際電影節的歷史,http://society.hkiff.org.hk/cn/aboutus_history.html, 2010年5月3日。
6. (張鍵)回顧70年代香港實驗電影電影會事蹟,http://www.cheungkin.com/film/CC/01.htm,2010年5月3日。7. Cinema Treasure: Studio One, http://cinematreasures.org/theater/31251/, ,2010年5月3日。
- 鳴謝鮑藹倫和盧燕珊提供資料。
注:
[1] 「香港自主电影三十年」,INDIE - ISSUE NO 587 / 2001-10-11,http://www.douban.com/group/topic/4232180/,2008年9月23日。
[2] (张键)回顾70年代香港实验电影电影会事迹,http://www.cheungkin.com/film/CC/01.htm,2010年5月3日。
[3]黎肖娴,〈为香港(新) 媒体艺术构筑初步的历史:考古、公众的认知、艺术家的教育〉,页119。

Monday, November 21, 2011

版權法修訂圓桌會議 : 藝術工作者反對版權條例修訂 要求豁免二次創作

作者:二次創作權關注組 +與會者 + Videotage +文晶瑩

錄映太奇在2011 年11 月12 日和13 日,舉辦了一個二次創作實驗短片放映會,並和知識產權處代表、藝術工作者、文字創作人、版權關注團體等人士,就版權法修訂進行了一次圓桌會議。會上藝術工作者、文字創作人、版權關注團體均指出,是次修訂非但無法加強打擊盜版,更嚴重損害創作自由及言論自由,要求豁免二次創作。

主辦單位在會上放映的作品,顯示二次創作可以是嚴肅的研究、政治批判、對經典的回應、和關於生活感受等。藝術工作者、香港城市大學創意媒體學院助理教授文晶瑩指出,二次創作具有原創性和獨立性,內容與原作有很大的距離,應該視為獨立作品,不應視作侵權。

代表知識產權署的高級律師曾志深則回應說,版權條例其實相當複雜,普遍大眾對版權條例不熟悉,當中難免有誤解;他補充如得版權持有人同意、又例如只取用部分而不是全部作品,有列明出處,目的是為了評論的話,「惡搞」並不算侵權。而且即使侵權也不一定會帶來後果,政府執法也需諮詢原創者,若原創者不追究,政府不會作出檢控。但文字創作人、「字花」編輯鄧小樺反駁說,若某畫展被懷疑侵權,海關查封了展覽,研究三個月,即使最終因證據不足、不檢控,
展覽卻因此被破壞,白費了藝術家的心血,其實已是一種打壓創作的手段。

二次創作權關注組代表「小狼」更指政府前後矛盾︰商務及經濟發展局副秘書長王國彬起初曾表示,香港版權法的修訂是沿襲英國的版權法,但當英國政府正計劃在版權法中豁免二次創作的同時,王國彬卻表示香港版權法的修訂未必要跟隨英國。而且二次創作不一定損害版權持有人的商業利益,但政府卻無視此情況。

二次創作權關注組的代表「靈」指出,是次修訂把「網上發表」當成「大量分發」,其實政府可以跳過版權持有人執法,而並非如曾志深所指「若原創者不追究,政府不會作出檢控」。她更指出,創作要考慮到時間性,如果每次發表作品都要經過審查,浪費時間之餘,作品亦未能及時展出,失去意義。

文晶瑩表示研究、評論等文章,引用他人文字,只要指明出處,也不用經原作者同意,同理二次創作若遵從公平使用原則又不牟利,也可以不用經原作者同意。文晶瑩和鄧小樺均指出,二次創作是一種藝術類型,有長久的歷史。錄映太奇主席鮑藹倫表示打壓這類藝術會影響文化承傳。鄧小樺指出製訂法例的知識產權署明顯不理解藝術創作生態,文化藝術知識落後。

創作人程展緯指出,政府對網絡文化知識同樣落後。政府雖然聲稱新修訂版權條例,是為了適應網絡年代,但程展緯指創作文化和網絡文化都是一種禮物經濟,有別於市場經濟,重視分享、推動、衍生。新修訂版權條例其實只是保障了商品,而不是保障創作。

二次創作權關注組的代表「小狼」更補充,法例保障的是版權持有人,但他們往往是商家不是創作人。版權法的平衡點向他們嚴重傾斜,未能保護真正的創作人。而林敏聰把自己作品放上網,卻被告侵權的事件正是一例。又表示根據現有條例92(2)(b)條:如作品經處理後受歪曲或殘缺不全,或在其他方面對作者或導演的榮譽或聲譽具損害性,則該項處理屬貶損處理。修訂後政府容易選擇性檢控,無法檢控一些真正犯法的人,卻檢控一些無辜的創作人。

曾志深稱,每次檢控須有足夠的客觀証據去顯示二次創作者對原創者構成名譽上或經濟上的損失,檢控標準其實很高,政府不會隨意作出檢控。修訂條例的其中一個目的乃希望它具有前瞻性,在科技進步的情況下,無須不斷修改條例。但與會人士反駁說雖然這條例字面屬民事性質,但如果有關案件涉及網上發表,則可能會被視為「大量分發」而遭刑事檢控。並建議修改字眼令條例更清晰。

與會人士又指出,張錦輝在接受《政府新聞網》訪問時明言「惡搞」是侵權,是「貶損性嘅處理」、「嚴肅變詼諧」以及「為版權持有人帶來精神感受之傷害」,是做了很差的社會教育。曾志深則解釋有關片段原本有一個多小時,但《政府新聞網》只截取了幾分鐘發佈,以致訊息不全面。但有與會者指知識產權署應該有修正的權利卻未運用。除政府代表外,與會者一致同意政府應刪除有問題的片段,並作更清晰的解釋。曾志深則表示會向局方反映。

有與會人士表示,政府在版權修訂上,對藝術工作者的咨詢不足。政府代表曾志深表示,條例咨詢足夠與否純粹個人感覺,咨詢由零六年十月已經開始,零八年四月已有初步的構思,必須循序漸進。但二次創作權關注組代表小狼指,他由零六年起已在留意版權條例,當年時任副署長張錦輝曾參與一個版權關注會議,而當年與會約一百人,近乎全部都表態要求政府豁免二次創作,但這聲音明顯未有反映在新修訂中,質疑政府只聽大財團聲音,漠視市民權益。鄧小樺也稱文化界
已爭取了十年以上。政府推說有關建議還要諮詢,相當不合理。她表示如果再作諮詢,創作人的聲音、數量都一定不夠工商界強,政府應該有文化知識高度去看這個問題。

有與會者表示,新修訂未能打擊盜版之餘,刑事化、政府主動執法的行動只會扼殺言論和藝術自由的權利,阻礙藝術和社會創意的發展,與特區政府推動創意產業的政策背道而馳。

會上藝術創作人普遍要求要豁免二次創作,聲音相當清晰,文晶瑩說許多國家例如比利時、法國、立陶宛、盧森堡、馬爾他、荷蘭、波蘭、西班牙都有法律明文容許二次創作(caricature,parody or pastiche),若作品遵守公平使用原則、非牟利、與原作有距離,便應得豁免。程展緯表示政府應說明豁免的原則是甚麼,若藝術創作性質如研究、評論等,便應同樣得到豁免。

有與會人士建議「格式轉換合法化」等技術性的修訂沒大爭議性,可先行通過。曾志深稱會與商務發展局反映大家的聲音。

查詢請聯絡錄映太奇:電郵info@videotage.org.hk/ 電話2573-1869。

參考資料:
-政府新聞處,“網絡無限 締造原創奇蹟”
2011 年6 月18 日,2011 年9 月9 日。
-王國彬,“加強保護版權,推動創意發展”香港政府新聞網,2011 年06 月15 日,
網頁2011 年9 月9 日。
- 二手料、原創片:香港實驗短片放映會和版權法圓桌會議介紹:http://videotage.org.hk/zh/project/second-­‐
hand-­‐material-­‐original-­‐works/

錄映太奇
新聞稿
即時發佈
2011 年11 月20 日
作者:二次創作權關注組 +與會者 + Videotage +文晶瑩
Photo: Mary Chan
(完)

Monday, November 7, 2011

Second-hand Material Original Works: Hong Kong Experimental Shorts


Date: 12 November 2011
Time: 3 pm
Duration: 80 mins ( follow by artists talk)
Venue: Videotage
Image: Tong Wing Sze "City Memory, Memorize Hong Kong"




Second-hand Material Original Works: Hong Kong Experimental Shorts


written by Phoebe Man

Because of the fast development of online communications technology, the Hong Kong government has recently been reviewing the Copyright Ordinance, mainly to curb internet piracy. Peter Cheung, Director of Intellectual Property Department, made it clear that “Kuso” style works are infringement of the copyright law (isdgovhk). The government’s guest lawyer, who is supposed to be familiar with intellectual property rights, said using other people’s works as art material is comparable to stealing. All of a sudden, artists who use found footage or images in their works are liable to criminal charges for suspected theft. The proposed stipulation makes a criminal offence any distribution of (creative) work that resembles an existing work, whether commercial or not, “to such an extent as to affect prejudicially the copyright owner(s)” (Intellectual Property Department of Commerce and Economic Development Bureau). According to the proposed legislation, the Government can take initiative for prosecution even without the report of the copyright owners. No wonder some critics of the proposal have dubbed it the “Article 23 for the Internet”. The government is using it to combat “Kuso” style political criticism. There is no exemption for art. It might further infringing on Hong Kong’s freedom of speech and creation. This situation worries many artists. Since there is a lot of misunderstanding of art works that used found images and footage, we will hold a screening that shows this kind of works and have forum after the screening. Wish the discussion can be deepened.

Using found footage and images to make art is a common practice with a hundred years’ history. In 1919, Duchamp added two moustaches to the face of a copy of a painting of Mona Lisaby which he tried to challenge the sacred status of the master piece. Andy Warhol's copies of images of Campbell soup and Marilyn Monroe brought popular culture into the arena of the art. However, those inspiring master pieces may now be violated of copyright laws in Hong Kong!

In the evening of September 22, the Commerce and Economic Development Bureau hosted a meeting to explain the new amendments of the Copyright Ordinance. The guest lawyer invited by the Government cited two anecdotes to explain how “Kuso” style work violated the law. He said, it is like someone visiting a restaurant. The man gives his car to a valet who has his car parked. The valet takes the car and rides around. The second anecdote concerns a hostess who tells her domestic helper to clean a ring. The domestic helper puts on the ring to show off. These anecdotes immediately aroused a lot of objection on the spot. One of the participants of the meeting objected to the lawyer’s comparing artists to thieves. Another participant complained that the analogies were totally inappropriate as in those two hypothetical situations, no new works were produced. I agree with him. In case of using found footage as art material, the original work will not disappear.

These analogies illustrate how some people misunderstand art. In many cases of artists using found footage, the point is to call the audience’s attention to the original context of the discourse. It is like citation. Artists used ready-made objects such as symbols, signs, posters, video clips and so on, as a metaphor or as a way to redefine the meaning of the original object. Citation is widely acceptable and is an honorable practice in writing. Why do we then make citation a crime in other expressive media? Why can’t we accept pictorial critiques or the use of visual metaphors? In Peter Cheung’s view, we need to ask for the creator’s permission when we use found footage or image (isdgovhk). According to the same logic, when we use a quote, we need to ask for the author’s permission. Furthermore, we can only use it if s/he like our articles. Otherwise, we might “affect prejudicially the copyright owner(s)”. If this is the case, how can anyone even write or publish anymore? According to many regular practices around the world, as long as the artists comply with the principles of fair use, and the works are not for commercial purposes, their works should not be regarded as infringement of copyright.

In the meeting of September 22, Deputy Secretary of Commerce and Economic Development, Christopher Wong said Hong Kong should follow the world standard, since UK and Australia have similar law. However, the participants of the meeting said there was a proposed amendment of UK’s copyright law in August. Derivative or transformative works can be exempted. Why does Hong Kong have to backtrack? Why does the law of the UK and Australia equal to world standard? In many countries such as Belgium, France, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, there is legislation in place to expressly permit caricature, parody or pastiche. Nordic countries allow artistic transformation: that is, the production of a new work based on an existing work does not require the consent of the right holder. Austria, Germany and Portugal have adopted the principle of fair use. They generally agree that derivative or transformative works do not infringe intellectual property rights , but of course these transformations must have kept certain distance from the original (Westkamp 45). Moreover, works can only be used after they are being published. The rationale for many of these exemptions is based on fundamental constitutional rights e.g. freedom of speech and art. (Westkamp 254). Caricature, parody and pastiches can be regarded as independent works. In Sweden, a radio program used the characters of a children book. In 2005, the Swedish Supreme Court agreed that it was a parody and was considered as an independent work rather than an infringement. The case was dropped. (Westkamp 434).

To provide more information for the discussion of this issue, the program “Second-hand Material Original Works” will show seven experimental short videos which involve the use of copies of images or found footage. The style of these works vary, some of them are serious research and discussion of culture, not restricted to “Kuso” style art pieces.

TONG Wing Sze’s < City Memory. Memorize Hong Kong > makes the images in the one hundred Hong Kong Dollar bank note alive. New buildings were erected one by one but old objects were shown to have fallen down. The fireworks inside the bank note burnt the note itself. It seems to criticize the over-developed and money ruled society.

Linda LAI’s work expresses her resistance against cliché statements made about Hong Kong while reaching out to its past via found images and sounds. . Her work, “VOICES SEEN, IMAGES HEARD” is a dialectical representation of her research process as a historian. With the images and sounds she found, she attempts a narrative of Hong Kong that is different from the (stereo-) typical Hong Kong story. She reveals clichés, and undoes familiar discourses, in order that she can go back to the fragments of the everyday ground level, suggesting that asking the question 'what is Hong Kong' is more important than providing stock answers. This approach is humane and inspiring. With the found materials she collected from different sources, she pieced together a story of the surfaces of Hong Kong that can only be viewed from outside.

IP Yuk Yiu’s work “The Moon is Larger in Peking – short version” also makes use of a well-known Hollywood film whose story that has supposedly happened in Hong Kong. He used a deconstructive method to eliminate some important elements of the film “LOVE IS A MANY SPLENDORED THING”, such as moving images, acting and sound etc. Instead, he used subtitles, flashing of still images and movie clips to compose the film. The style of the film has totally been changed. It also inspires others to think of the form of a film.

Hector RODRIGUEZ’s work “Flowpoints: Kiss,” which also transforms an American classic, used motion tracking software to trace the movement of human beings. The computer codes he wrote generates abstract lines from the footage of Andy Warhol’s film “Kiss.”. The work shows the tension between abstraction and figuration, between movement/rhythm and objecthood. The work tries to grasp the rhythm of the bodies. Although the lines look simple, one can still feel the emotive force of human beings.

Ellen PAU also used the method of subtraction for her “Fanfare for the Common Man” She chose the daily behaviors of human beings in the animated news, put them together and added the background music of Olympic Games. The work seems to question the dramatic news reporting and to cast doubt on the news’ authenticity. Although the news clips came from different news stories, they are consistent and seem to be telling the same story. Her work grasps the pulse of the times.

CHOI Sai Ho used a different method to treat the news. His work “Star” is like a collage of news, banners and sound of demonstration of the “protecting the historic sites - Star Ferry Pier and Queen’s Pier” event. The rhythm is so intense and the work shows the violence of the news event.

The TV news in LAW Yuk Mui’s “Disabled Novel” shows another image where the news items are just like parts of normal life, quiet, monotonous and melancholy.

Works using found footage have rich artistic expressions. It can be historical research, political criticism, life experience, artistic reflection and media exploration, etc. There are many other possibilities that this program cannot include. They are independent and original works. They are very different from the original works. If the Hong Kong Government does not exempt these art works from copyright laws, it will be restricting artistic expressions and may lead to self-censorship. This will stifle the development of art and go against the Government policy of promoting creative industries in Hong Kong.

Reference:
Intellectual Property Department of Commerce and Economic Development Bureau, Hong Kong’s Amended Copyright Law: Guidance Note on Prevention of End-User Piracy in Business, Revised Edition 2010. Web 9, September, 2011. P. 2. < http://www.ipd.gov.hk/eng/intellectual_property/copyright/booklet_piracy_
in_business_e.pdf>

isdgovhk , “Unlimited Network Creates Original Miracle," 18 June, 2011. Web 9, September, 2011. Http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h64uPUYa9Bk

Westkamp Guido. The Implementation of Directive 2001/29/EC in the Member States. February, 2007. Web 9 September, 2011. .


Curator: Phoebe Chingying Man (Artist, Assistant Professor of School of Creative Media, City University of Hong Kong)

Special thanks: Videotage, ifva and Linda Lai

Introduction of Artists and Art works
1. Director: Hector Rodriguez
Title: Flowpoints: Kiss
Running Time: 8 minutes 35 sec
Year of Production: 2011

A short description of Flowpoints: Kiss
Flowpoints: Kiss is a work of experimental video animation that deconstructs Andy Warhol’s movie Kiss using a motion tracking software designed by the artist. The software generates abstract line renderings based on a computational analysis of the micro-movements of the original film. The abstract images represent movements rather than human figures, recalling philosopher Henri Bergson’s remark that “matter is dissolved into action” and “there are no things that move, but only changes in the rhythms of motion”. The sound synthesis technique is a variant of the same algorithm that generates the images.

A director’s biography
Hector Rodriguez is a media artist and theorist based in Hong Kong. His digital animation Res Extensa won an award in the Hong Kong Art Biennial. His game system P3: CoPerspective was a finalist in the graphics meets games competition at the Eurographics Conference. His essays about game studies, cinema, and philosophy have been published in various journals, including Game Studies, Screen, Cinema Journal, and Postscript, among others.

2. Director: Linda C.H. LAI
Title: VOICES SEEN, IMAGES HEARD
Running Time: 27min 58sec
Year of Production: 2009

A short description of VOICES SEEN, IMAGES HEARD
A historian, also an interdisciplinary artist, engages in a self-dialogue of how to write the history of her city, Hong Kong. Drilling the disparate mines of sights and sounds, she re-examines the power and limitation of ocular epistemology, which favors visual perception as the dominant form of knowing. As she ploughs her way through the scanty and homogenous visual documents available, she re-imagines a city that has a precarious history of struggling to hold onto its look or preserve its architectural integrity at the mercy of real estate development. In response, she re-constructs a visual essay that is also a collage of lost surfaces and shadowy fragments of past existence. Her meditation leaves open the potential meanings of each of the sight-and-sound fragments that seem to have spoken to her as she asks how feasible it is to access the past.

A director’s biography
Linda Lai is a Ph.D. in Cinema Studies (NYU), currently Associate Professor in intermedia arts at the City University's School of Creative Media, and Major Leader of the Bachelor of Arts in Creative Media. She is a Hongkong-based inter-disciplinary artists and curator, and founder of the new media art group The Writing Machine Collective (2004- ). Her works have a strong concern for language and narrativity, grounded in a feminist sensibility that integrates critical theory, film theories and visual ethnography. Her video and digital installation works have been exhibited in Oberhausen, Berlin, Vienna, London, Birmingham, Barcelona, Paris, Hamburg, Sydney, Kuala Lumpur, New Delhi, Taipei, Kaohsiung, Seoul and Hong Kong.

3. Director: Law Yuk-mui
Title: Disabled Novel
Running Time: 17 mins 36 sec_
Year of Production: 2010

A short description of Disabled Novel
Disabled Novel is based on the eponymous novel I wrote. This film has no dialogue and is divided into13 parts, 90% of which consists of internal soliloquy. Using the theme of “lost” as a starting point, the film lays bare the odd sense of melancholy that pervades life. Traversing reality, memory and fantasy, it reconstructs the psychological pathways of urban life with broken fragments.

A director’s biography
Law Yuk mui, graduated from the Master of Fine Arts (MFA), Chinese University of Hong Kong. She focuses on experimental film script, video and conceptual art. In 2007, she is the youngest artist in the exhibition “Reversing Horizons– Artists Reflections of Hong Kong Handover 10th Anniversary” in MOCA, Shanghai, China. In 2005, she awards the 1ST runner-up of the Philippe Charriol Foundation 20th Anniversary Art Competition. In the same year, her work was selected for the entries of Hong Kong Art Biennial 2005. In 2006, she awards the “Alfred S.U. Ho Memorial Prize”, “Cheung’s Fine Art Award”, “CUHK Creativity Student Award” and “The dean’s List of 2005-2006 for outstanding Academic performance (Faculty of Arts)”.


4. Director: Tong Wing Sze
Title: City Memory, Memorize Hong Kong
Running Time: 5 minutes
Year of Production: 2008
A short description of City Memory, Memorize Hong Kong
The animation is based on the idea of old Hong Kong bank notes and the development of this city. As a commercial city, Hong Kong is always showing the view of its thriving development. In this work, along with the city’s development, especially under the shoot off fireworks, the old bank note was catch fire and slowly went up in flames. I want to express some valuable things or culture, were losing simultaneously along with the city development.

A director’s biography
Have been immersing in the field of animation, I’m keen to exploit this creative media in the flow of my work. Media art has opened up a wider range of possibilities and experimental means for me to explore interesting and novel visual experiences. For instance my work ‘City Memory, memorize Hong Kong’, the application of digital media offers me another way to express my idea towards the society nowadays.
Growing up in Hong Kong such a prosperous city, I am interested to know how the city and the citizen assess the value and I would like to uncover more local culture and also the current society phenomenon of this city in my projects.


5. Director: IP Yuk-Yiu
Title: THE MOON IS LARGER IN PEKING short version
Running Time: 7 minutes
Year of Production: 2004

A short description of THE MOON IS LARGER IN PEKING short version
THE MOON IS LARGER IN PEKING is a literal remake of the Hollywood blockbuster LOVE IS A MANY SPLENDORED THING (1955), starring Jennifer Jones and William Holden. Stripping the image and sound away from the original film, the remake retains only the film dialogue in the form of subtitles, rendering the original romantic tale into a hollow and ghostly experience. The film dialogue, taken out-of-context and dissociated from the original images, becomes an allegorical conversation about displacement, alienation and cultural representations.

A director’s biography
Ip Yuk-Yiu is a filmmaker, media artist, art educator and independent curator. His works, ranging from experimental videos to live film performances and media installations, have been showcased extensively at international festivals including Ann Arbor Film Festival (USA), European Media Art Festival (Germany), New York Film Festival (USA), the Image Festival (Canada), VideoBrasil (Brazil) Transmediale (Germany) and Yamagato International Documentary Film Festival (Japan). He has lectured extensively on film, video and media art and has taught at Emerson College, Massachusetts College of Art and the Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Currently he is an Associate Professor at the School of Creative Media, City University of Hong Kong. His recent works explore emergent and computational forms of cinema.

6. Director: Ellen Pau
Title: Fanfare for the Common Man
Running Time: 4 min
Year of Production: 2010

A short description of Fanfare for the Common Man
Ellen PAU chose the daily behaviors of human beings in the animated news, put them together and added the background music of Olympic Games. The work seems to question the dramatic news reporting and to cast doubt on the news’ authenticity. Although the news clips came from different news stories, they are consistent and seem to be telling the same story.

A director’s biography
Ellen Pau began working with film and video in Hong Kong in the 1980s. Her earlier works describe and interrogate the cultural / sexual identity in post colonial Hong Kong. Her works are shown in pop music concerts, performances, conferences, and festivals such as European Media Art Festival, Japan Image Forum, Kwangju Biennial, Johannesburg Biennial, Cities on the move, Hong Kong international Film Festival, Asia Pacific Triennial, Venice Biennale etc. She was artist-in-residence in Holland's Mu Art Foundation, Spacex Gallery in the U.K, Griffith University in Australia and Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. She was selected to participate in Asia-Europe Art Exchange and was awarded fellowship for artistic development by Hong Kong Arts Development Council and Asian Cultural Council. Pau also established Videotage and has been the artistic director of Videotage since 1995. She curates multimedia programs for Microwave Festival, museums/galleries and festivals.

7. Director: CHOI Sai Ho
Title: STAR_(alternative version)
Running Time: 8 mins
Year of Production: 2011

A short description of STAR (alternative version)
Star is illustrating the events of protecting the historic sites - Star Ferry Pier and Queen’s Pier. The result of the demolition of the piers gave a strong message and warning to public based on the lack of the Hong Kong heritage conservation policy and the concern of collective memory. It is also an inquiry of cultural amnesia beneath its fast-paced motion graphics with high rhythm sonic beats. The issues inspire the director to make artworks with his unique audio-visual interpretation illustrating the events by using his own images, frame-by-frame “pen strokes” paintings, video documenting the events, soundscape field recordings, newspaper cutting images, photo collage, etc.

A director’s biography
Choi Sai Ho is an electronic musician and audio-visual artist. Sai Ho has obtained a Master of Fine Arts in Creative Media at the City University of Hong Kong in 2008. He was selected as the first Hong Kong Chinese musician to join the Red Bull Music Academy 2006 in Melbourne, Australia. His works has been selected to Perform Media Festival 2006 (USA), VideoBrazil Festival 2007 (Brazil), Microwave International New Media Arts Festival (Hong Kong), Hong Kong Contemporary Art Biennial 2009, Experimentica 2010 (UK), T(h)ree Concert 2011 (Portugal), etc. Sai Ho was selected as the Hong Kong’s Top 20 Musicians by Hong Kong Time Out Magazine in 2008. In 2009, Sai Ho released as S.T. first audio-visual album Weird Mind. Its title track Weird Mind is selected to the Best of Hong Kong Indie 2009 Number One by Time Out Magazine. He made his first solo multimedia concert “Audio-visual live” in 2010.

English Dialogue (04min40sec – 05min31sec):

Speech of Dr. Mirana May Szeto: “…5 months later, on the same day, the government is still ignoring the noises and opinions from the public, still decide to demolish the Queen’s Pier. We and all the Hong Kongers request – No Demolish, No Removal, No Farewell. To preserve Queen’s Pier, it is unnecessary to have 50 million or even above this cost according to the government. Instead, it needs determination. The government is planning to have new buildings, P2 highway, the new pier for military, etc. These are not agreed by Hong Kongers. What we need is not these things. What we need is the Hong Kongers’ piers, Hong Kongers’ harbour, city that belongs to Hong Kongers!